MAPK


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Related to MAPK: MEK, PI3K

MAPK

A broad category of serine-threonine kinases which regulate a broad range of cellular functions.

MAPK groups
• ERK—ERK1, ERK2.
• c-Jun N-terminal kinases
  – JNK1 = MAPK8;
  – JNK2 = MAPK9;
  – JNK3 = MAPK10.
• p38 isoforms—MAPK11, MAPK12, MAPK13, MAPK14.
• ERK5—MAPK7.
• ERK3, ERK4—MAPK6, MAPK4.
• ERK7/8—MAPK15.

ERK = Extracellular signal-regulated kinases.

ERK 1 and ERK 2 transduce signals from growth factors and are key in regulating differentiation and proliferation in many cell types. Upon activation by MEK, ERK1 and ERK2 translocate to the nucleus where they phosphorylate transcription factors such as Elk1 and downstream kinases—e.g., p90 RSK, JNK 1 = MAPK8; JNK2 = MAPK 9; and JNK3 = MAPK 10 (sometimes known as SAPKs, or stress-activated kinases) and the p38.

MAPKs (alpha-, beta-, delta- and gamma- isoforms) are activated by UV irradiation, inflammatory cytokines and hyperosmolarity. The p38 MAPKs are also activated by lipopolysaccharide. Dysregulation of MAPK kinase pathways has been associated with various diseases, including cancer (ERK), neurodegeneration (JNK) and inflammation (p38).

mitogen-activated protein kinase

,

MAPK

A signaling protein, i.e., a protein that circulates extracellularly influencing other cells to turn on the process of protein synthesis. These proteins have an effect on cellular replication and cellular death in inflammatory, ischemic, and malignant diseases.

protein kinase

An enzyme that activates or inactivates cell proteins or enzymes by adding a phosphate moiety, thereby changing cell functions.

mitogen-activated protein kinase

Abbreviation: MAPK
A signaling enzyme, i.e., one that circulates extracellularly, influencing cells to begin protein manufacturing. They affect cellular replication and death in inflammatory, ischemic, and malignant diseases.

mitogen-activated protein kinase

Abbreviation: MAPK
A signaling enzyme, i.e., one that circulates extracellularly, influencing cells to begin protein manufacturing. They affect cellular replication and death in inflammatory, ischemic, and malignant diseases.
See also: protein kinase
References in periodicals archive ?
At the time p38[delta] MAPK was first described the microtubule-associated protein tau was identified as a strong in vitro substrate for p38[delta] MAPK [46].
Bhattacharyya et al .[37] discovered that dexamethasone could induce MKP-1 expression and inhibit p38 MAPK pathway in mice with normal macrophages, but not in mice with conditional deletion of GR in macrophages, suggesting that GR and its activation are essential for GCs to induce MKP-1 expression and inhibit p38 MAPK activity.
Involvement of p38 MAPK and Nrf2 in phenolic acid-induced P-form phenol sulfotransferase expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.
MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) downregulates the expression of p42/p44 MAPK and plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation [15].
Our results show that GA reduces cytokine production, HL60 cell migration, cellular and mitochondrial ROS production, and MAPK activation in BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells.
ICA Upregulates Protein Expression of the MAPK Signaling Pathway.
Furthermore, we discovered that downregulation of HPSE attenuated the invasion of EVT by activating the p38 MAPK pathway.
Several studies have reported that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), such as extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK (p38), are crucial mediators of inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [14, 15].