bacteriophage

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bacteriophage

 [bak-te´re-o-fāj″]
a virus that destroys bacteria by lysis; several varieties exist, and usually each attacks only one kind of bacteria. Certain types attach themselves to the cell membrane of the bacterium and instill a charge of DNA into the cytoplasm. DNA carries the genetic code of the virus, so that rapid multiplication of the virus takes place inside the bacterium. The growing viruses act as parasites, using the metabolism of the bacterial cell for growth and development. Eventually the bacterial cell bursts, releasing many more viruses capable of destroying similar bacteria. Called also bacterial virus. adj., adj bacteriopha´gic.

With some bacteria, notably those of the Streptococcus family, infection by certain phages can dramatically alter pathogenicity, converging previously innocuous microbes into deadly pathogenic strains. The so-called “flesh-eating” viruses are a striking example. They are relatively harmless bacteria until new geletic material is incorporated via a phage or plasmid.
temperate bacteriophage one whose genetic material (prophage) becomes an intimate part of the bacterial genome, persisting and being reproduced through many cell division cycles; the affected bacterial cell is known as a lysogenic bacterium.

bac·te·ri·o·phage

(bak-tēr'ē-ō-fāj), Avoid the mispronunciation bak-te'rē-ō-fahzh. Avoid the misspelling and mispronunciation bacterialphage.
A virus with specific affinity for bacteria. Bacteriophages have been found in association with nearly all groups of bacteria, including the Cyanobacteria; like other viruses they contain either (but never both) RNA or DNA and vary in structure from the seemingly simple filamentous bacterial virus to relatively complex forms with contractile "tails"; their relationships to the host bacteria are highly specific and, as in the case of temperate bacteriophage, may be genetically intimate. Bacteriophages are named after the bacterial species, group, or strain for which they are specific, for example, corynebacteriophage, coliphage; a number of families are recognized and have been assigned provisional names: Corticoviridae, Cystoviridae, Fuselloviridae, Inoviridae, Leviviridae, Lipothrixviridae, Microviridae, Myoviridae, Plasmaviridae, Podoviridae, Styloviridae, and Tectiviridae.
See also: coliphage.
Synonym(s): phage
[bacterio- + G. phagō, to eat]

bacteriophage

(băk-tîr′ē-ə-fāj′)
n.
A virus that infects and lyses certain bacteria.

bac·te′ri·o·phag′ic (-făj′ĭk) adj.
bac·te′ri·oph′a·gy (-ŏf′ə-jē) n.

bac·te·ri·o·phage

(bak-tēr'ē-ō-fāj)
A virus with specific affinity for bacteria. Bacteriophages have been found in essentially all groups of bacteria; like other viruses they contain either RNA or DNA (but never both) and vary in structure from simple to complex; their relationships to host bacteria are specific and may be genetically intimate. Bacteriophages are named after the bacterial species, group, or strain for which they are specific, e.g., corynebacteriophage, coliphage.
See also: coliphage
Synonym(s): phage.
[bacterio- + G. phagō, to eat]

bacteriophage

or

phage

a VIRUS that attacks BACTERIA. Bacteriophage literally means ‘bacterium-eater’. Each bacteriophage may infect one or a few strains or species of bacteria. Broadly, bacteriophages can be classified as VIRULENT or TEMPERATE. The bacteriophages are a very heterogeneous group. Some are small and icosahedral, for example π X174, others are simple filaments, for example M13, whilst many are more complex with a polyhedral head and a tail, for example T-phages.

Others have no definite shape but are pleomorphic. The table below presents some examples of representative bacteriophages. Many bacteriophages are composed of a PROTEIN coat and the NUCLEIC ACID of the CHROMOSOME; however, some also have a LIPID component. The nucleic acid may be DNA or RNA, hence the names DNA or RNA phages respectively. The nucleic acid may be double-stranded or single-stranded. Bacteriophage DNA molecules are often used as cloning VECTORS in GENETIC ENGINEERING. See also LYTIC CYCLE, LYSOGENY, PLAQUE, TRANSDUCTION, GENERALIZED TRANSDUCTION and SPECIALIZED TRANSDUCTION.

bac·te·ri·o·phage

(bak-tēr'ē-ō-fāj)
A virus with specific affinity for bacteria; found in essentially all groups of bacteria; like other viruses, they contain either RNA or DNA (but never both) and vary in structure from simple to complex; their relationships to host bacteria are specific and may be genetically intimate.
Synonym(s): phage.
[bacterio- + G. phagō, to eat]
References in periodicals archive ?
Lee, "Facile patterning of genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage for directional growth of human fibroblast cells," Soft Matter, vol.
The combination of MALDI-MS and the Sanger sequencing method has been used for M13 bacteriophage DNA, with sequence being determined for DNA as much as 35 bases long [12].
The virus, called M13 bacteriophage, consists of an outer coat of protein surrounding an inner core of genes.