The LVEF, ratio of early diastolic peak velocity of transmitral flow (E) and septal diastolic e' mitral annular peak velocity (e'), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), and LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) were evaluated using M-mode
, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE), respectively.
All cases underwent the standard echocardiographic assessment including 2D (two-dimensional), PW (pulsed-wave) Doppler color Doppler and M-mode
Parasternal long-axis views provided two-dimensional M-mode
The IVC diameter was increased at 2.7-3.0 cm and demonstrated <50% collapse with inspiration (Figures 2(a) and 2(b): 2D and M-mode
images with markings).
All the patients were subjected to two-dimensional echocardiography, M-mode
and Doppler echocardiography within one day of admission.
Typically, three modes are obtainable in the ultrasonic diagnosis systems; there are A-mode, B-mode and M-mode
. A-mode is the amplitude of the replicated wave, which represents the amount of the reflected ultrasound waves.
Two-dimensional and M-mode
echocardiographic measurements were conducted.
subxiphoidal window used to view the IVC, and both ends of the inspiration and expiration diameters were recorded in millimeters (Fig.1).
Patients who met the inclusion criteria underwent an echocardiographie examination which was performed on the patient in the lateral decubitus position using the equipment Esaote MyLab30 equipped with a cardiology module with B-mode, M-mode
, Doppler color, spectral Doppler in pulsed wave (PW) and continuous wave (CW) modes.
More recently Left Atrial Volume (LAV) measured by bi dimensional echo was proposed as more accurate index for the detection of left atrial dilation, superior than the simple antero-posterior diameter derived by the M-mode
Other new content includes material on elastography, shear wave imaging, ARFI imaging, volume imaging, power M-mode
Doppler in TCD, miniaturization, and newer acquisition techniques in systems.
Echocardiographic measurements were performed in M-mode
by an echocardiographer who was blinded to the experimental design as described previously (20).