However, in M-CSF
+ RANKL-treated cultures, the erosion profiles were markedly different between the three groups (Figure 2(a)).
After 48 h stimulation, the supernatant fluid was collected and levels of GM-CSF and M-CSF
(Abcam, Cambridge, UK, catalog numbers ad201276 and ab199084) were determined using commercially available ELISA kits according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Suzuki, "Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF
) protects spiral ganglion neurons following auditory nerve injury: morphological and functional evidence," Experimental Neurology, vol.
De Vernejoul, "Local bone injections of LPS and M-CSF
increase bone resorption by different pathways in vivo in rats," The American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
When BMMs were incubated in media with M-CSF
in the presence of different concentrations of liensinine or nuciferine for 5 days, cell viability was decreased in a dose-related manner (I[C.sub.50] = 6.2 [micro]M for liensinine and 79.3 [micro]M for nuciferine) (Figure 4(a)).
To clarify the effects of sanguiin H-6 on osteoclast formation, BMMs were cultured with indicated concentrations of sanguiin H-6 in the presence of M-CSF
and RANKL for 72 h.
is well known as an essential factor in osteoclast formation.
The point in DC differentiation at which M-CSF
influences developmental outcomes is likely during the MDP to CDP conversion when M-CSF1R is expressed, but this has not yet been directly examined.
In mammals, it has been suggested that the monocytes production is controlled by different growth factors as CFUGEMM, CFU-GM e M-CSF
(Metcalf; Metcalf & Nicola) or 11-6 (Otsuka et al., 1991).
TNF stimulates stem cells and RANKL and M-CSF
osteoblast production, driving osteoclast formation.
Splenocytes were seeded at 1.75 x [10.sup.5] cells/well in a 96-well plate in [alpha]-MEM supplemented with macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF
; 30 ng/mL) and receptor activator nuclear factor [kappa]B ligand (RANKL; 100 ng/mL).
Dr Thornton, a senior lecturer at Swansea's clinical school, has already analysed tissue from the placenta of women with and without allergies and found that lower levels of one of these growth factors - macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF
) - was produced by mothers- to-be with allergies.