Lymphocytopenia


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Lymphocytopenia

 

Definition

Lymphocytopenia is a condition marked by an abnormally low level of lymphocytes in the blood. Lymphocytes are a specific type of white blood cell with important functions in the immune system.

Description

Lymphocytes normally account for 15-40% of all white cells in the bloodstream. They help to protect the body from infections caused by viruses or fungi. They also coordinate the activities of other cells in the immune system. In addition, lymphocytes fight cancer and develop into antibody-producing cells that neutralize the effect of foreign substances in the blood.
Lymphocytopenia is the result of abnormalities in the way lymphocytes are produced, make their way through the bloodstream, or are lost or destroyed. These conditions can result from congenital or drug-induced decreases in the body's ability to recognize and attack invaders.

Causes and symptoms

Lymphocytopenia has a wide range of possible causes:
  • AIDS and other viral, bacterial, and fungal infections
  • Chronic failure of the right ventricle of the heart. This chamber of the heart pumps blood to the lungs.
  • Hodgkin's disease and cancers of the lymphatic system
  • A leak or rupture in the thoracic duct. The thoracic duct removes lymphatic fluid from the legs and abdomen.
  • Leukemia
  • Side effects of prescription medications
  • Malnutrition. Diets that are low in protein and overall calorie intake may cause lymphocytopenia.
  • Radiation therapy
  • High stress levels
  • Trauma.
The symptoms of lymphocytopenia vary. Lymphocytes constitute only a fraction of the body's white blood cells, and a decline in their number may not produce any symptoms. A patient who has lymphocytopenia may have symptoms of the condition responsible for the depressed level of lymphocytes.

Diagnosis

Lymphocytopenia is most often detected when blood tests are performed to diagnose other diseases.

Treatment

Treatment for lymphocytopenia is designed to identify and correct the underlying cause of the condition.
Drug-depressed lymphocyte levels usually return to normal a few days after the patient stops taking the medication.

Key terms

B lymphocyte — A type of lymphocyte that circulates in the blood and lymph and produces antibodies when it encounters specific antigens. B lymphocytes are also called B cells.
Lymph — A clear yellowish fluid circulated by the lymphatic system. The lymph carries mostly lymphocytes and fats.
Lymphocyte — A specific type of white blood cell that is important in the production of antibodies.
A deficiency of B lymphocytes, which mature into antibody-producing plasma cells, can result in abnormally low lymphocyte levels. When the number of B lymphocytes is low, the patient may be treated with antibiotics, antifungal medications, antiviral agents, or a substance containing a high concentration of antibodies (gamma globulin) to prevent infection.
It is not usually possible to restore normal lymphocyte levels in AIDS patients. Drugs like AZT (azidothymidine, sold under the trade name Retrovir) can increase the number of helper T cells, which help other cells wipe out disease organisms.

Prognosis

Very low levels of lymphocytes make patients vulnerable to life-threatening infection. Researchers are studying the effectiveness of transplanting bone marrow and other cells to restore normal lymphocyte levels. Gene therapy, which uses the body's own resources or artificial substances to counter diseases or disorders, is also being evaluated as a treatment for lymphocytopenia.

Resources

Books

Berktow, Robert, et al., editors. Merck Manual of Medical Information: Home Edition. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 1997.

lym·pho·pe·ni·a

(lim'fō-pē'nē-ă),
A reduction, relative or absolute, in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood.
[lympho- + G. penia, poverty]

lym·pho·pe·ni·a

(lim'fō-pē'nē-ă)
A reduction, relative or absolute, in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood.
Synonym(s): lymphocytopenia.
[lympho- + G. penia, poverty]
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, the toxic effect of arsenic also caused significant neutropenia (P=0.022), lymphocytopenia (P<0.001), and thrombocytopenia (P=0.023) indicating compromised hemostatic and immune system.
Idiopathic CD4 Lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare immunodeficiency characterized by low CD4 counts in the absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other immunodeficiencies.
Posterior fossa midline cryptococcoma in a patient with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia. Indian J Med Microbiol.
In this study, we revealed that, in patients with RA who are being treated with biologic agents, PCP developed with almost normal lymphocyte counts and lower [beta]-D-glucan levels, whereas in those being treated with nonbiologic DMARDs, PCP was marked by high [beta]-D-glucan levels with apparent lymphocytopenia. The findings suggest that the pathophysiology of PCP in patients being treated with biologic agents is different from that in patients being treated with nonbiologic DMARDs.
PML is also linked to sarcoidosis, and it is not not associated with immunosuppression or CD4 lymphocytopenia [4].
The lymphocytopenia observed in the present study occurred only in the [CD4.sup.+] subpopulation, with no change in [CD8.sup.+] cells.
Thrombocytopenia (platelet count, 82 K/mcL) and lymphocytopenia (absolute lymphocyte count, 0.2 K/mcL) were assumed to be secondary to cyclophosphamide use.
Adverse events were common, affect ing 69%-92% of patients, and chiefly involved gastrointestinal complaints, flushing, and laboratory abnormalities such as elevated liver enzymes (up to 62%), eosinophilia (up to 46%), and lymphocytopenia (up to 38%).
[sup][3] These alterations start immediately after the onset of CPB and lymphocytopenia lasts in the early postoperative days, mainly from the decrease of helper/inducer T-cells.
Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia and opportunistic infection: An update.
Decreased Hb and TEC levels could be due to epistaxis, petechial hemorrhages, myelosuppression or due to severe anemia (Bhadesiya and Raval, 2015), neutrophilia (73.24 [+ or -] 1.09%), lymphocytopenia (20.10[+ or -]2.07%), monocytosis (4.25 [+ or -]1.31%) with normal range of eosinophils (2.41[+ or -] 0.29%) were recorded in epistaxis dogs in comparison with apparently healthy dogs.