Lymph Node Biopsy


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Lymph Node Biopsy

 

Definition

A lymph node biopsy is a procedure in which all or part of a lymph node is removed and examined to determine if there is cancer within the node.

Purpose

The lymph system is the body's primary defense against infection. It consists of the spleen, tonsils, thymus, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, and the clear, slightly yellow fluid called lymph. These components produce and transport white blood cells called lymphocytes and macrophages that rid the body of infection. The lymph system is also involved in the production of antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that fight bacteria, viruses, and other foreign materials that enter the body.
The lymph vessels are similar to veins, only instead of carrying blood as veins do, they circulate lymph to most tissues in the body. Lymph nodes are about 600 small, bean-shaped collections of tissue found along the lymph vessel. They produce cells and proteins that fight infection, and clean and filter lymph. Lymph nodes are sometimes called lymph glands, although they are not true glands. When someone talks about having swollen glands, they are actually referring to lymph nodes.
Normal lymph glands are no larger than 0.5 in (1.3 cm) in diameter and are difficult to feel. However, lymph nodes can enlarge to greater than 2.5 in (6 cm) and can become sore. Most often the swelling is caused by an infection, but it can also be caused by cancer.
Cancers can metastasize (spread) through the lymph system from the site of the original tumor to distant parts of the body where secondary tumors are formed. The purpose of a lymph node biopsy is to determine the cause of the swelling and/or to see if cancer has begun to spread through the lymph system. This information is important in staging the cancer and devising a treatment plan.

Precautions

Women who are pregnant should inform their doctor before a lymph node biopsy, although pregnancy will not affect the results.

Description

There are three kinds of lymph node biopsy. Sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy is a promising new technique that is discussed in its own entry. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, often just called needle biopsy, is done when the lymph node of interest is near the surface of the body. A hematologist (a doctor who specializes in blood diseases) usually performs the test. In FNA biopsy, a needle is inserted through the skin and into the lymph node, and a sample of tissue is drawn out of the node. This material is preserved and sent to the laboratory for examination.
Advantages of a needle biopsy are that the test is minimally invasive. Only a local anesthetic is used, the procedure generally takes less than half an hour, and there is little pain afterwards. The disadvantage is that cancer may not be detected in the small sample of cells removed by the needle.
Open lymph node biopsy is a surgical procedure. It is done by a surgeon under general anesthesia on lymph nodes in the interior of the body and under local anesthesia on surface lymph nodes where FNA biopsy is considered inadequate. Once there is adequate anesthesia, the surgeon makes a small cut and removes either the entire lymph node or a slice of tissue that is then sent to the laboratory for examination. Results in both kinds of biopsies take one to three days.
Open biopsy can be advantageous in that it is easier to detect and identify the type of cancer in a large piece of tissue. Also, lymph nodes deep in the body can be sampled. Disadvantages include a longer recovery time,
Lymph node biopsy is a procedure in which a sample of lymph node tissue is removed for laboratory analysis. It is generally performed on an outpatient basis.
Lymph node biopsy is a procedure in which a sample of lymph node tissue is removed for laboratory analysis. It is generally performed on an outpatient basis.
(Illustration by Electronic Illustrators Group.)
soreness at the biopsy site for several days, and the use of deeper anesthesia, increasing the risks to the patient. The procedure is done in a hospital or outpatient surgery center and takes about an hour, with additional time to recover from general anesthesia.

Preparation

No particular preparation is necessary for a needle biopsy. For an open biopsy, patients need standard pre-operative blood tests and other tests to evaluate general health. The doctor should be informed about any medications (prescription, non-prescription, or herbal) the patient is taking, as well as past bleeding problems or allergies to medication or anesthesia.

Aftercare

Little aftercare is needed in a needle biopsy other than a bandage to keep the biopsy site clean. Patients who have general anesthesia for an open biopsy often feel drowsy and tired for several days following the procedure, and should not plan to drive home after biopsy. The incision site must be kept clean and dry, and a follow-up visit to check on healing is usually necessary.

Risks

There are few risks associated with lymph node biopsy. The main risks are excessive bleeding (usually only in people with blood disorders) and allergic reaction to general anesthesia (rare). Occasionally the biopsy site becomes infected.

Normal results

Normal lymph nodes are small and flat. When examined under the microscope, they show no signs of cancer or infection.

Abnormal results

Abnormal lymph nodes are usually enlarged and contain cancerous (malignant) cells and/or show signs of infection.

Resources

Organizations

American Cancer Society. 1599 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329. 800(ACS)-2345). http://www.cancer.org.
Cancer Information Service. National Cancer Institute. Building 31, Room 10A19, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. (800)4-CANCER. http://www.nci.nih.gov/cancerinfo.

Other

ThriveOnline June 12, 2001. http://thriveonline.oxygen.com/medical/library/article/003933.html.

Key terms

Lymph nodes — Small, bean-shaped organs located throughout the lymphatic system. The lymph nodes store special cells that can trap cancer cells or bacteria that are traveling through the body in lymph. Also called lymph glands.
Lymphocytes — Small white blood cells that bear the major responsibility for carrying out the activities of the immune system; they number about 1 trillion.
Malignant — Cancerous. Cells tend to reproduce without normal controls on growth and form tumors or invade other tissues.
Spleen — An organ located at the left side of the stomach that acts as a reservoir for blood cells and produces lymphocytes and other products involved in fighting infection.
Thymus — An organ near the base of the neck that produces cells that fight infection. It is at its largest at puberty, then declines in size and function during adult life.
Tonsils — Small masses of tissue at the back of the throat.
References in periodicals archive ?
Two patients underwent simple mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Histopathological examination revealed a mean tumour size of 3.0+-1.3 cm.
"When breast cancer is detected early, we can perform a sentinel lymph node biopsy, a targeted procedure in which we focus on removing only the few lymph nodes that are most important in draining the breast.
A sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a procedure during which the sentinel lymph node, which is the main drainage pathway, is identified, excised, and evaluated histopathologically to detect cancer cells.
An excisional cervical lymph node biopsy for histopathological evaluation was performed which revealed acute and chronic inflammation with areas of necrosis and karyorrhexis debri with no evidence of granuloma formation of malignant cells.
A promising alternative to assess axillary lymph node status in early breast cancer patients is Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) and USG guided FNAC Both USG5 guided FNAC and sentinel lymph node biopsy have been useful to avoid a morbid axillary dissection.
Patent blue dye and an atypical anaphylactic reaction after sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer.
A T1a melanoma generally is not considered appropriate for staging of the regional lymph nodes with sentinel lymph node biopsy (with exceptions noted in the guideline), whereas a T1b melanoma may be considered for SLNB staging --though rates of SLN positivity remain relatively low in the T1b group."
(2) Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard management approach for regional node metastasis.
The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a staging technique should be discussed and offered for cutaneous melanoma at least 1 mm in thickness or for thinner melanomas with adverse features.
The Magtrace and Sentimag Magnetic Localization System (Sentimag System) uses magnetic detection during sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures to identify specific lymph nodes, known as sentinel lymph nodes, for surgical removal.
The communication reports diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in a fifteen day old Sahiwal calf by lymph node biopsy examination and its successful treatment.