The epidemiological pattern of the disease is similar to the neighboring areas of Iran, Afghanistan and Rajasthan in India.4 Sand fly Phlebotomus spp in Europe, North Africa, Middle East, and Asia or of the Lutzomyia
spp in the Southern USA to Northern Argentina are vectors of disease.1 Clinical manifestations are cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral Leishmaniasis.
It is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly, including the genus Lutzomyia
in the New World and Phlebotomus in the Old World.
Leishmaniasis, disi kum sinegi (Phlebotomus ve Lutzomyia
) sineklerinin kan emmesi esnasinda insana bulastirdigi bir hastaliktir.
(1991) who included it in the Lutzomyia
genus, Verrucarum group in accordance with Theodor's classification (1965).
VL is a severe systemic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by the hematophagous phlebotomine insect of the genus Lutzomyia
. It presents an heteroxenic cycle, strictly intracellular, that infects cells of the Mononuclear Phagocytic System (MPS) of various animal species (Silva et al., 2008).
(2014) A laboratory evaluation of alcohols as attractants for the sandfly Lutzomyia
longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).
According to the World Health Organization leishmaniasis is one of the most serious diseases caused by protozoan parasites, with approximately 12 million cases reported in the world.1 It is caused by more than 20 Leishmania species which are transmitted by hematophagous sandflies of the Phlebotomus genus in the Old World and the Lutzomyia
genus in the New World, and more than 90 sandfly species are identified as probable vectors.2 The disease occurs in varying presentations, from the self-limited and even self-healing cutaneous forms to fatal systemic disease.
As main vectors of this parasite, two phlebotomine sandfly species, Lutzomyia
longipalpis, widespread in the country, and Lutzomyia
cruzi registered in Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso States, (SANTOS et al., 1998; LAINSON & SHAW, 2005; MISSAWA et al., 2011; BRASIL, 2014) have been implicated, and the domestic dog has been considered the common reservoir, with canine cases normally preceding the occurrence of human cases (GONTIJO & MELO, 2004).
Leishmaniasis, which can present as a fixed, indolent, longstanding ulcer, is transmitted by the bite of the Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia
sandfly, which is not endemic to North America.
There are more than 900 species and subspecies of sand flies worldwide  and the presence of at least six genera, Phlebotomus (Rondani and Berte, 1840), Sergentomyia (Franca and Parrot, 1920), and Chinius (Leng 1987) in the old world and Brumptomyia (Franca and Parrot, 1921), Lutzomyia
(Franca, 1924), and Warileya (Hertig, 1948) in the new world has been accepted by most specialists such as Bates et al.