Grimes (1987) reported extending protracted spawning season, over several months, for many lutjanids
Even while direct age determination methods usually lead to higher and more accurate growth and longevity values, the present estimate of longevity (23 years) is similar to that in studies of lutjanids
of medium to large size.
Both techniques are well known to have serious bias where size is uncoupled from age and where under-aging can lead to a three-fold overestimation of natural mortality for lutjanids
(Newman et al.
are considered gonochoristic, achieving sexual maturity with 40 to 50% of the maximum length and fecundity values are high (Grimes 1987).
Concerns have been raised about the level of harvest and sustainability of fishing for lutjanid
populations in some regions (Kamukuru et al.
2003) described spawning behavior in two lutjanids
from the Gulf of California (yellow snapper, L.
This finding supports Grimes's (1987) observation that continental lutjanid
populations tend to have more restricted spawning seasons than populations associated with oceanic islands, which spawn more or less continuously throughout the year.
These other studies demonstrated significant differences in age structures, somatic growth, mortality, and otolith growth among individual reefs within a single geographic region for several smaller reef-associated lutjanid
, acanthurid and pomacentrid species.
species are favored for consumption or sale, they are commonly targeted by fishermen (Munro, 1983; Koslow et al.
multidens is similar to that observed for other long-lived lutjanid
species in the Indo-Pacific region (Newman et al.
The view that winter-spawned fish were Gulf of Mexico expatriates is supported by Grimes's (1987) review of lutjanid
While higher abundance and diversity of Lutjanids
(snappers) have been found in Thalassia testudinum habitats near coral reefs than near mangroves (Baelde 1990), we found that Lutjanus apodus was found only in mangroves, but Ocyurus chrysurus was found in both habitats (Table 1).