lung volumes

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lung volumes

Physiology A group of air 'compartments' into which the lung may be functionally divided
Lung volumes  
Expiratory reserve capacity–ERV The maximum volume of air that can be voluntarily exhaled
Functional residual capacity (FRV) Volume left in the lungs at the end of a normal breath which is not normally part of the subdivisions
Inspiratory capacity–IC The maximum volume that can be inhaled
Inspiratory Reserve capacity–IRC The maximum volume that can be inhaled above the tidal volume
Tidal volume–VT The normal to-and-fro respiratory exchange of 500 cc; vital capacity is the maximum amount of exhalable air; after a full inspiration, which added to the residual volume, is the total lung capacity
Total lung capacity–TLC The entire volume of the lung, circa 5 liters
Vital capacity–VC The maximum volume that can be inhaled and exhaled  
Lung volumes.

lung volumes

measurements made as part of pulmonary function tests; the volumes that move in and out during the normal breathing cycle, and with deliberate additional effort, can be measured directly by spirometry with the subject breathing through a closed circuit in and out of a cylinder inverted over water, or into a vitalograph, or by pneumotachograph; the residual volume can be measured only indirectly by dilution methods (usually with helium) or by whole body plethysmography. See also ventilation. See figure and table overleaf .
Table 1: Lung volumes
VT (TV)Tidal volumeVolume of inspired/expired air moving in and out with each breath
IRV
ERV
Inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumesUsed when tidal volume increases above that at rest
VCVital capacityVolume that can be inspired/expired after full expiration/inspiration
FEV1Forced expiratory volume in 1sVolume exhaled in the first second, with maximal effort after full inspiration
FRCFunctional residual capacityVolume remaining in the lungs at end-expiration; decreases as tidal volume increases
RVResidual volumeRemains after a maximal expiratory effort; cannot be exhaled
TLCTotal lung capacityVital capacity + residual volume
References in periodicals archive ?
The global respiratory disease testing market is segmented as follows: Global Respiratory Disease Testing Market, by Test - Imaging Tests - Spirometry Tests - Peak Flow Tests - Blood Gas Tests - Lung Volume Tests - Other Tests Global Respiratory Disease Testing Market, by End-user - Hospitals - Physician Offices - Clinical Laboratories Companies Mentioned - COSMED - CareFusion Corporation - Carestream Health, Inc.
It carries much less risk and complication and requires a far shorter hospital stay than surgical lung volume reduction.
Most people with COPD are able to maintain a stable end expiratory lung volume (EELV) and inspiratory capacity (IC) at rest, but with the increased ventilatory demand imposed during exercise, expiratory flow limitations arise, leading to increased EELV and reduced IC.
They found a reduction in lung volume in the absence of a significant decrease in body length and weight, accompanied by functional deficits not entirely explained by the observed reduction in the volume of the lungs of animals in the vitamin deficient group.
This manuscript highlights the degree of lung volume reduction associated to previously unrecognized interstitial lung abnormalities in smokers," said Hiroto Hatabu, MD, and Ivan Rosas, MD of the Divisions of Radiology and Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine at BWH.
Use the graph "Lung-Volume Conversion" (right) to convert from balloon diameter (cm) to lung volume (cubic cm).
Contributors address both intra-operative techniques and post-operative care for reducing complications, with chapters on topics such as thoracic incisions, arrhythmias following cardiac and thoracic operations, and complications of cardiopulmonary bypass, lung transplantation, lung volume reduction surgery, esophageal resection, pleural operations, mediastinal procedures, off-pump coronary artery surgery, and atrial fibrillation surgery.
Important components likely include pharyngeal anatomy (38,39), pharyngeal dilator muscle responsiveness to respiratory challenges during sleep (40-43), the arousal threshold (propensity to wake up from sleep) (44,45), the instability of the negative feedback control system regulating ventilation (loop gain) (46-48), and upper airway tethering via caudal traction from changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) (49-52).
Meta-analyses are undertaken to compare the effect of open vs closed suctioning on various outcome measures such as arterial oxygen saturation, end-expiratory lung volume, and the presence of ventilator associated pneumonia.
Langerhans-cell histiocytosis is best characterized by preservation of lung volume with reticulonodular opacities in the upper- and middle-lung zones of a smoking patient with sparing of the costophrenic angles.