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For the patient with pancreaticopleural fistula, reported with hemoptysis 2 weeks after intercostal drainage, CT-angiogram showed multiple pseudoaneurysm involving inferior phrenic and lower intercostal arteries which was eventually managed with angioembolisation with coils (Figure 8), while another patient with infected pseudocyst developed splenic artery pseudoaneurysm in the follow-up period and required angioembolisation (Figure 9).
The lower part of the azygos venous line, develops into the hemiazygos vein that drains the posterior lower intercostal spaces.
The nerve supply to these muscles is derived from the lower thoracic nerves, via the lower intercostal, subcostal, iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves (2).