Reproduction of marine invertebrates, echinodermata and lophophorates
. Volume VI.
An example of this diversity is shown here with new records of a variety of developmental stages of important biogenic architects of the coral reef (Cocito, Ferdeghini, & Sgorbini, 2001), such as sponges, polychaetes and "lophophorates
Calcitic semi-nacre is much more common in lophophorates
(Taylor & Weedon 2000).
The relationships among the lophotrochozoan taxa are still somewhat poorly resolved (Dunn et al., 2008; Paps et al., 2009), but the core group (lophotrochozoan sensu stricto of Paps et al., 2009) includes molluscs, annelids, nemertines, the lophophorates
, platyhelminths, and other smaller phyla).
They share affinities with tentaculitids (Weedon 1991, 1994) and more generally with lophophorates
(Taylor & Vinn 2006).
Recent phylogenetic analyses using molecular sequence data concur that lophophorates
belong within the lophotrochozoan clade (Aguinaldo et al., 1997; Aguinaldo and Lake, 1998; Peterson and Eernisse, 2001; Bourlat et al., 2008), and it seems to us that the case of Owenia obviates any apparent conundrum posed by deuterostome-like traits of lophophorate
This situation differs sharply from the one in lophophorates
, where numerous such cells were found in the apical organ of phoronids, although peripheral cells comparable to those of the tetraneuralians have not been clearly identified (Santagata, 2002; Santagata and Zimmer, 2002).
The more divergent morphologies present within the Lophotrochozoa confound traditional evolutionary interpretations of many larval and adult characters, especially with regard to the "lophophorates
." More recent studies on the development and larval anatomy of phoronids and brachiopods have expanded our understanding of their evolutionary affinities (Santagata and Zimmer, 2002; Santagata, 2004b; Cohen and Weydmann, 2005).
Gilmour's views on feeding by hemichordates and lophophorates
The method of feeding of lophophorates
(Bryozoa, Phoronida, Brachiopoda).
85-245 in Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, Volume VI, Echinoderms and Lophophorates
301-353 in Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, Vol VI: Echinoderms and Lophophorates