Severe trauma can result in avulsion of the longus capitis
muscle from the insertion of the basisphenoid bone and moderate bleeding from the guttural pouch.
The longus colli muscle is one of the anterior cervical muscles, along with the longus capitis
, rectus capitis anterior, and rectus capitis lateralis.
The pharyngeal bursa (PB) is a recess lined with respiratory epithelium along the posterior wall of the nasopharynx between the longus capitis muscles.
The pharyngeal bursa (PB) is a recess lined with respiratory epithelium along the midline posterior superior wall of the nasopharynx between the longus capitis muscles.
AS: anterior scalene, CA: carotid artery, IJV: internal jugular vein, LCa: Longus Capitis
, LCo: longus colli, MS: middle scalene, PVF: prevertebral fascia, SCM: sternocleidomastoid, VN: vagus nerve, and VA: vertebral artery.
 In addition, the craniocervical region is supported by the longus capitis muscle anteriorly and the suboccipital extensor, semispinalis, and splenius capitis muscles posteriorly.
Studies have identified impaired activation of the deep cervical flexor muscles, the longus colli and longus capitis, in people with neck pain.
Even more important however is the role of the deep neck flexors, longus colli and longus capitis
. Rehabilitative treatment for these muscles should focus on endurance exercises to improve the ability to contract over time.
Syntopy: The CCG was laterally surrounded by plenty of the fat mass but its glossy medial surface was clearly visible after removal of the longus capitis muscle.
One the medial side, the extra-cranial part of the internal carotid nerve was covered by the longus capitis muscle.
Muscular branch: A branch originated from the lateral surface of the rostroventral margin of the CCG accompanying the muscular branch of the pharyngeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery to the insertion portion of the longus capitis muscle (Fig.
The CCG is related to the lateral surface of the longus capitis muscle in the yak, white yak, Bactrian and dromedary camels, and in the schematic illustration supplied in the horse (Budras et al.), in which such a syntopy was in concurrent with the present finding.