We then examine this Inner London effect
further, finding that it is driven in part by two dimensions of migration.
Author Professor Simon Burgess said: "A lot of the 'London effect
' is just due to the composition of pupils in schools, and not really due to any policy.
The study aimed to investigate the reasons for rapidly improving GCSE grades at London schools, known as the 'London effect
Our research clearly documents the 'London effect
', with values above what they were before the financial crisis.
Only the London effect
pushed wages in England higher, at PS513.
The view of successive Governments, most notably Tony Blair's, has been that importance of the 'London effect
' for the wider economy trumps the need to address the growing imbalances in regional prosperity.
"But we need to make the 'London effect
' spread for decades to come.
"Arguably the London effect
extends into parts of south-west and eastern England."
"You could argue the London effect
," said Professor John Bryson, chair in enterprise and economic geography at the University of Birmingham.
I think the Government has come to the view that we need the 'London effect
' in big cities such as Liverpool, to get people involved again."
His story had some resonance in the week in which some university geographers had announced that, based on the results of the 2001 census, London, and the London boom economy, was now directly influencing nearly a third of the nation, with the "London effect
" on house prices, work and leisure, now lapping the south bank of the River Humber.