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If a number, x, is expressed as a power of another number, y, that is, if x = yn, then n is said to be the logarithm of x to base y. Common logarithms are to the base 10; natural or Napierian logarithms are to the base e, a mathematical constant.
[G. logos, word, ratio, + arithmos, number]
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In mathematics, the logarithm of the form [log.sub.2.sup.x], x > 0 is called binary logarithm function [50].
Below, we see that the argument of the logarithm function on the right-hand side of Eq.
At the first sight it seems that the problem of finding any X = [x.sub.ij]} and V = [ v.sub.ij]} can be performed by applying a discrete logarithm function to all equations in (13).
For k > 21 by using the monotonicity of the logarithm function and [e.sup.-[gamma]] > 0.56 we get that
Here and throughout the paper, unless stated otherwise, our logarithmic function logx is a natural logarithm function (following the notation of [7]).
The Number of neighbors (N): To normalize the linked numbers, we use a logarithm function to represent the number of nodes within every node's transmission range.