According to MacArthur (1960) the opportunist species growth rate ([approximately equal to] occasional or rare) would be controlled by environmental independent and stochastic variations, whose multiplicative effects would lead to a

log-normal distribution.

The last two columns in the first row of Table 1 also present Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Bera-Jarque test statistics for examining the adequacy of the

log-normal distribution for characterizing the distribution of final cumulative values.

410 is determined to be the value for which the estimated

log-normal distribution and the estimated exponential distribution are approximatively at equal distance from the mixture d(p) according to Renyi's divergence.

Figure 1 confirms the validity of this basic law regarding the

Log-Normal distribution of ideal regulatory activities in living matter, in contrast to a random (Gaussian) distribution.

In case of goethite, the 2-site model predicted that <40% of sorbed Ag was associated with slower reaction sites, and log k values obtained from the

log-normal distribution model are closer to the rate constant for the 'fast' reaction (log [k.

Suppose the model m was found to be a

log-normal distribution and its parameters were determined using least squares analysis.

The size distribution of small graupels (minigraupels), we studied, followed closely the

log-normal distribution curve (Table 5) and does not correspond to much larger graupel sizes sampled in Germany.

Lomolino's chapter in particular nicely demonstrates the relationship between assembly rules and concepts such as species area curves, Preston's canonical

log-normal distribution, and MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography.

This model's exchange rate assumptions imply that the return on investments in a given currency has a

log-normal distribution with a constant variance.

Specifically, the

log-normal distribution is assumed in this study for its flexibility in allowing a variety of hazard shapes.

The

log-normal distribution assures that each angler in the population has a positive coefficient for the variable, whereas with the normal distribution, some anglers in the population necessarily have negative signs while others have positive signs (the share of the population with each sign is determined by the mean and standard deviation of the distribution, which are estimated.

Equation-2 shows that stock prices follows a

log-normal distribution.