Curtis et al., "Presynaptic inhibition of diverse afferents to the locus ceruleus
by K-opiate receptors: a novel mechanism for regulating the central norepinephrine system," Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
The activity of the noradrenergic neurons is decreased by agonists acting at [alpha]2-adrenergic receptors on the locus ceruleus
Adicionalmente, se ha observado que los pacientes con parkinsonismo padecen de degeneraciones en nucleos subcorticales en el area ventral-tegmental, hipotalamo, nucleo dorsal del rafe y locus ceruleus
. Estas degeneraciones han sido observadas tambien en pacientes con depresion (Lieberman, 2006; McDonald et al., 2003).
Hypocretinergic neurons also send projections into brainstem areas that control various aspects of wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (the locus ceruleus
, raphe nuclei and reticular formation).
The chemical signals initiating the different aspects of the stress response are triggered by two factors in the brain, says Gold: corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and a bundle of neurons called the locus ceruleus
. Actions of both are strongly implicated also in melancholic depression, he says.
Naghdi, "Effect of reversible inactivation of locus ceruleus
on spatial reference and working memory," Neuroscience, vol.
The locus ceruleus
norepinephrine system: functional organization and potential clinical significance.
The sedation effect of alpha 2 agonist is postulated to be in the locus ceruleus
(a bilateral nucleus that contains many adrenergic receptors) in the brainstem.
A brain region that plays a role in muscle atonia, as well as in sleep, wake and the transitions between various sleep stages, is the locus ceruleus
(LC), a blue-tinged area located in the rear upper brainstem.
Many patients with chronic daily headache are thought to have a down regulation of norepinephrine receptors caused by excessive release of norepinephrine from the locus ceruleus