Manfred Nebelin, Ludendorff: Diktator im Ersten Weltkrieg, Munich: Siedler Verlag, 2010, 159; Stone, Russian Army, 130-4; Otto von Below, "Winterschlacht in Masuria," No Date, Nachlass Otto von Below, File N 87/58, Bundesarchiv-Militararchiv, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Germany [hereafter cited as BA-MA N87/58]; General der Infanterie Karl Litzmann
, Lebenserinnerungen, Berlin: Verlag R.
with an introduction by Berthold Litzmann
(Hamburg and Leipzig: Voss, 1887).
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Clara Schumann, diary, 8 September 1875, in Berthold Litzmann
lists the medium of his pictures as "acrylic/cast acrylic," and at first I wondered whether this wordplay meant he had developed a way to set acrylic paint in a solid sheet, to which he then strategically applied acrylic in its usual form--making paint both the medium and the support.
In actual fact, five of the twelve generals heading that institution between 1871 and 1914 were of "bourgeois" background, namely August (von) Etzel, Karl Rudolf (von) Ollech, Karl (von) Villaume, Karl Litzmann
, and Erich (von) Gundell.
See Berthold Litzmann
, Clara Schumann: Ein Kunstlerleben nach Tagebuchern und Briefen, 3 vols.
further notes that this caused her husband to laugh, though Robert did enjoy her setting of "Das Veilchen.
, Clara Schumann: An Artist's Life, Based on Material Found in Diaries and Letters, trans.
Levi provides us with a description of the coin (star of David stamped on one side together with the date "1943"; "QUITTUNG UBER 10 MARK" and "DER ALTESTE DER JUDEN IN LITZMANNSTADT" on the other), its historical context in the form of documentary fact, carefully situating his subject with population figures (the Lodz ghetto held 750,000 inhabitants prewar, and 160,000 Jews in 1944), the origin of the German name of Lodz at the time ("Litzmannstadt" for Litzmann, a World-War I general), its major industry (textiles), its significance (Poland's most industrial city), its appearance (the most modern and the ugliest Polish city).