Updating the American college of Rheumatology preliminary classification criteria for systemic sclerosis: addition of severe nail fold capillaroscopy abnormalities markedly increases the sensitivity for limited scleroderma
. Arthritis Rheum.
His third patient was twenty eight years old women who had limited scleroderma
five years ago.
The most recent data shows that renal crisis is found in 1% of cases with limited scleroderma
; on the other hand, in the diffuse type it was found between 4 to 11%  and in some reports up to 25% .
Cutaneous calcinosis in a patient with limited scleroderma
: CREST Syndrome
There are two main types of the disease: the localized form (called localized scleroderma, limited scleroderma
, or morphea) and the systemic form (called systemic scleroderma, diffuse scleroderma, generalized scleroderma, or systemic sclerosis).
The predominance of limited scleroderma
was evident in this study, as shown in previous large cohort studies from France and Germany.
Some of these patients, albeit with limited scleroderma
because skin involvement does not exceed elbows and/or knees, have a clinical behavior which can be described as intermediate between the strictly limited to fingers patients and those with diffuse disease.
(CREST Syndrome)." The Mayo Clinic.
Risk factors for PAH include underlying connective tissue disease, especially limited scleroderma
and mixed connective tissue disease, a family history of PAH, the presence of congenital heart disease, and environmental factors such as exposure to anorexigens.
Scleroderma with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (the CREST variant of limited scleroderma
Studies have found poorer survival among those with dip fuse systemic disease compared to those with limited scleroderma
. Visceral involvement, presence of antibodies to topoisomerase I (anti-Sci-70), elevated erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) >25 mm/h, and anemia are also adverse prognostic factors.
Steen noted a prospective trial at the University of Pittsburgh in which 26 women had limited scleroderma
and 41 pregnancies and 33 women with diffuse scleroderma had 50 pregnancies from 1987 to 1996.