Nonstandard abbreviations: WAT, white adipose tissue; UCP1, uncoupling protein 1; ASC-1, neutral amino acid transporter, y+ system, also called solute carrier family 7 member 10, slc7a10; PET/CT, positron emission tomography-computed tomography; PAT-2, proton/amino acid symporter member 2, also called solute carrier family 36 member 2, slc36a2; P2RX5, purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel
They noted a protein sequence on the bacteria that is remarkably similar to the sequence of a group of ligand-gated ion channels
in the human brain.
Functional architecture of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: a prototype of ligand-gated ion channels
. J Membr Biol 1993;136:97-112.
Over the last two decades, numerous studies have shown that alcohol affects many different types of ion channels, including ligand-gated ion channel
receptors (Narahashi et al.
Evolutionary relationship of the ligand-gated ion channels
and the avermectin-sensitive, glutamate- gated chloride channels, J.
They explained, "Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are a family of ligand-gated ion channels
, and high-affinity nicotine binding is associated with receptors composed of [[alpha].sub.4][[beta].sub.2] subunits.
ATP has a dual role as both an energy source for enzymatic reactions and as a first messenger for several classes of G protein-coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels
. ATP was found to induce c-fos luciferase in [GH.sub.4][C.sub.1] cells with a characteristic biphasic response, pPfTx also induced c-fos luciferase in a similar manner.
Neuronal nicotinic receptors (NNRs) belong to the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels
, are formed from five subunits either as homologous or heterologous, oligomeric receptors, and are of interest as targets for treatment of a variety of central and peripheral nervous system disorders.
The nAChRs belong to the cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels
, which also includes [lambda]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated Cl- channels, glycine receptors, glutamate-gated Cl- channels, and 5-hy droxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors (Lester et al.
This signaling involves six major functional classes of receptors: three classes of ligand-gated ion channels
(ionotropic receptors) and three classes of G-protein-coupled receptors (metabotropic receptors).
These include lectins, which have been implicated in the metamorphosis of larvae of the spirorbid polychaete Janua brasiliensis (Kirchman et al., 1982; Maki and Mitchell, 1985), and ligand-gated ion channels