pediculosis

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Related to Lice infestations: pediculosis, Pediculus capitis

pediculosis

 [pĕ-dik″u-lo´sis]
infestation with lice (see louse). Lice live on the host's blood, obtained by piercing the skin and sucking the blood through the mouth part. The area bitten itches and may become sore and infected from scratching. Not only are lice an annoyance, but they also transmit some diseases, such as typhus.
Treatment. Head lice hatch eggs in silvery oval-shaped envelopes that attach to the shafts of the hairs. The eggs, called nits, can be removed with some difficulty by combing with a very fine-toothed comb. The lice and nits are effectively killed by applications of 1 per cent gamma benzene hexachloride (Kwell) in a cream or shampoo, lindane, permethrin cream or rinse, or pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide liquid, gel, or shampoo.
pediculosis pu´bis infestation with lice of the species Phthirus pubis, the crab louse, usually limited to the pubic hairs but sometimes involving other hairy areas such as the eyelashes, eyebrows, or axillae. It is usually transmitted sexually but may be contracted from bedding and clothing. On the body, it can be treated with a special cream, lotion, or shampoo, such as Kwell, twice daily for two weeks. If the eyelashes are involved, a thick layer of petrolatum should be applied. Called also crabs and phthiriasis.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

pe·dic·u·lo·sis

(pĕ-dik'yū-lō'sis),
The state of being infested with lice.
[L. pediculus, louse, + G. -osis, condition]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

pediculosis

(pə-dĭk′yə-lō′sĭs)
n.
Infestation with lice.

pe·dic′u·lous (-ləs) adj.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

pediculosis

Infestation with lice. See Louse.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

pe·dic·u·lo·sis

(pĕ-dik'yū-lō'sis)
The state of being infested with lice.
[L. pediculus, louse, + G. -osis, condition]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

pediculosis

(pe-dik?u-lo'sis) [? + Gr. osis, condition]
Infestation with lice. See: Pediculus
Enlarge picture
PEDICULOSIS CAPITIS
Enlarge picture
PEDICULOSIS CAPITIS

pediculosis capitis

A scalp infection caused by head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, a common parasite in children. Outbreaks are common in schools, esp. among children between the ages of 5 and 11. The infection is transmitted through use of personal items such as hair ornaments, combs, hairbrushes, hats, scarves, or coats or through direct contact between the heads of two children. Lice, which feed on blood obtained by biting the skin, cause itching, esp. around the ears, in the occipital area, and at the nape of the neck. Long-standing infestations may produce chronic inflammation. The adult louse is seen rarely; diagnosis usually is made through the presence of eggs (nits), which appear as whitish sacs attached to the hair. See: illustration

Symptoms

Itching and eczematous dermatitis. In long-standing, neglected cases, scratching may result in marked inflammation. Secondary infection by bacteria may occur, with formation of pustules, crusts, and suppuration. Hair may become matted and malodorous.

Treatment

Therapies for lice infestations are modified frequently, to match the resistance of lice to current therapies and to minimize the toxicities of medications. Manual removal of lice always is appropriate and is strongly recommended by lice specialists. Others recommend the use of insecticides (pediculocides).

Patient care

The patient and family are taught how to apply medication (lindane, permethrin, pyrethrins, piperonyl butoxide, malathion) to dry hair for lice and are warned that the eyes should be immediately flushed with copious amounts of water if the medication accidentally contacts them. They are informed about minimizing the spread of infection by washing or dry cleaning all clothing and linen used in the home, delousing of rugs and upholstered furniture with sprays or vacuuming, keeping combs and brushes separate, and using medicinal shampoos if there has been contact with the patient.

illustration

pediculosis corporis

Pediculosis caused by the body louse, Pediculus humanus. It is transmitted by direct contact or by wearing infested clothing and is often transmitted in crowded or unhygienic conditions. The body louse occasionally is the vector for several important transmissible illnesses, including epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever.

Symptoms

Infestation with body lice is marked by intense itching, esp. on the neck, trunk, and thighs. Tiny hemorrhagic points identify the bites. Generalized excoriation, mild fever, and fatigue characterize heavy infestations. In severe cases, pustules may develop.

Treatment

The patient first bathes with hot soap and water and then applies prescribed creams containing approved pesticides to affected areas.

Patient care

The patient should be assessed for diseases that body lice may transmit. If the patient is homeless or impoverished, social services agencies should be contacted to assist him or her to find shelter and clean clothing. If the patient lives with others, close personal contacts or family members should be screened for lice. All clothing, furniture, rugs, and bedding must be washed with hot water or dry cleaned. To prevent transmission of pediculosis among hospitalized patients, all high-risk patients should be examined for evidence of hair or body lice infestation on admission. Health care professionals should be careful to include older adults who are dependent on others for care, those coming from nursing homes or other assisted living facilities, and people living in crowded conditions.

pediculosis palpebrarum

Infestation by lice of the eyebrows and eyelashes.

pediculosis pubis

Pediculosis caused by Phthirus pubis, also known as crab lice. It is transmitted by direct contact and through bedding or shared towels. The pubic louse can also infest the axillae, eyelashes, and head hair. The patient can present with pruritus. On occasion visual identification of the lice may be seen in pubic hair as oval attachments on pubic hair shafts, black dots (feces) on skin and underwear, or crusts or scabs in pubic area from scratching. Treatment is the same as for other ectoparasitic (skin parasite) infestations.
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners

pediculosis

Any kind of louse infestation.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

Pediculosis (plural, pediculoses)

The medical term for infestation with lice.
Mentioned in: Lice Infestation
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Spinosad for treatment of head lice infestation. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 45(7-8), 954-959.
Pediculosis capitis, known as head lice infestation caused by Pediculus humanus capitis is a common community health concern which affects millions of children around the world.
The length of time being homeless was not associated with body lice infestation in our study.
The prevalence of lice infestation was higher in females (53.49%) than the male (43.70%).
In phase 3 trials, Sklice Lotion (ivermectin) was proven to resolve most head lice infestations with one well-tolerated, ten minute application in two weeks duration, said the company.
Head lice infestation is the second most communicable disease among schoolchildren, after the common cold.
Working together to prevent head lice infestations can decrease the incidence by identifying those children early in the school year before a pediculosis epidemic can occur.
The company's two owners, Wendy Beck and Karen Sokoloff, saw the need for in-home, all natural lice treatment services to help families combat head lice infestations as they had been receiving calls from families in Worcester who had heard of the Boston-based business.
However, only about two-thirds of the school nurses perceived eliminating head lice infestations to be one of the many important roles of school nursing, and even fewer (11%) found it to be professionally gratifying.
Treatments for head lice infestations are available in prescription medications as well as over-the-counter remedies.
The upgraded site provides a map of lice outbreaks posted by schools (noting only the zip codes) as well as support and instructions for dealing with lice infestations.
Beck studied the life cycle of lice and developed a scientific plan that works to eliminate lice infestations. LiceDoctors offers a full guarantee that the protocol is effective.