antileukotriene

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an·ti·leu·ko·tri·ene

(an'tē-lū'kō-trī'ēn),
A drug that prevents or alleviates bronchoconstriction in asthma by blocking the production or action of naturally occurring leukotrienes; may also be useful in psoriasis.

Leukotrienes are eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid, which is present in cell membranes. The cysteinyl leukotrienes, which are elaborated by bronchopulmonary mast cells, eosinophils, and probably alveolar macrophages, have been shown to mediate bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, hyperventilation in cold air, aspirin, and inhaled allergens. They act by stimulating a specific receptor, known as cysteinyl leukotriene receptor type 1 (CysLT1). Antileukotrienes having clinical usefulness in asthma include zileuton, which inhibits 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme critical in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, and leukotriene receptor antagonists (cinalukast, montelukast, zarirlukast, and others). Antileukotrienes reverse bronchconstriction in asthma to a lesser degree than β2-adrenergic agonists, but their effects are additive to those of the latter agents. In chronic asthma, antileukotrienes improve peak flow and FEV1 and reduce the frequency and severity of acute asthmatic attacks, the need for β2-agonists, and the need for corticosteroid rescue. They are particularly effective in the prophylaxis of asthma induced by exercise and aspirin. In contrast, many people with allergic asthma show little or no response. Antileukotrienes are not indicated in the treatment of an acute asthmatic attack or in mild, intermittent asthma controlled adequately with occasional use of inhaled β2-agonists. They have not been recommended as a substitute for inhaled corticosteroids in prophylaxis of asthma. Antileukotrienes are administered orally or by inhalation. Both onset and waning of clinical effects are gradual. Side-effects are minimal, but drug interactions may occur because of interference with cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Rare transitory elevations of hepatic aminotransferase have been reported with some agents.

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

antileukotriene

Any of a class of agents that either interferes with leukotriene synthesis or antagonises leukotriene receptors, which are as effective as cromolyn or theophylline, and may reduce the amount of inhaled steroids needed to control inflammation.

Antileukotrienes 
LTD4 receptor antagonists (Zafirkulast-Accolate)
 
Pros
LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction, early and late responses, exercise challenge, cold-induced asthma, chronic asthma.
 
5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor (Zileutron-Zyflo)
 
Pros
Asthma induced by exercise, cold, aspirin, bronchial hyperresponsiveness.
 
FLAP inhibitors (5-lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitor)

Pros
Early and late responses and cold-induced asthma.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

antileukotriene

Any of a class of agents that either interfere with leukotriene synthesis or antagonize leukotriene receptors, which are as effective as cromolyn or theophylline, and may ↓ the amount of inhaled steroids needed to control inflammation See Asthma, Leukotrienes, Zafirlukast, Zileuton.
Antileukotrienes
LTD4 receptor antagonists
Zafirkulast-Accolate® Benefits LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction, early and late responses, exercise challenge, cold-induced asthma, chronic asthma
5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor
Zileutron-Zyflo®Benefits asthma induced by exercise, cold, aspirin, bronchial hyperresponsiveness
FLAP inhibitors
None are FDA-approved Benefits early and late responses and cold-induced asthma
.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

an·ti·leu·ko·tri·ene

(an'tē-lū-ko-trī'ēn)
A drug that prevents or alleviates bronchoconstriction in asthma by blocking the production or action of naturally occurring leukotrienes; may also be useful in psoriasis.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

an·ti·leu·ko·tri·ene

(an'tē-lū-ko-trī'ēn)
A drug that prevents or alleviates bronchoconstriction in asthma by blocking the production or action of naturally occurring leukotrienes; may also be useful in psoriasis.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Shepstone et al., "Leukotriene antagonists as first-line or add-on asthma-controller therapy," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
Leukotriene antagonists as well as cycloxygenase inhibitors (cox 2 inhibitors) are two classes of drugs recently synthesized from years of analyzing the exact participants in the inflammation cascade (see Figure 1).
Therefore, leukotriene antagonists could interfere with cytokine function.
[10] Patients were excluded if they had significant co-morbidities, were receiving oral corticosteroids, LABAs, leukotriene antagonists or theophylline or had undergone an asthma exacerbation or lower respiratory tract infection within the four weeks prior to study entry.
Medications commonly used to treat asthma include corticosteroids (inhaled and oral), leukotriene antagonists (Singulair, Accolate, and Zyflo), theophylline, bronchodilators (both short- and long-acting), and xolair (Omalizumab).
Inhibitors of the Th2 inflammatory response (blocking IL-4, IL-5, or leukotriene antagonists) are not as effective in atopic diseases as corticosteroids.
Major Finding: Leukotriene antagonists showed equivalence with inhaled glucocorticoids as first-line therapy for asthma and with beta-agonists as add-on therapy for asthma at 2 months and at 2 years on several measures, but fell just short of demonstrating equivalence on the primary end point at 2 years.
Omalizumab was evaluated in a pivotal 52-week study of 627 children aged 6-11 years with moderate to severe persistent, inadequately controlled allergic asthma, despite treatment with fluticas-one at a dose of 200 mcg or more per day (or the equivalent), with or without other controller medications, which included short-acting beta-agonists (a mean of 2.8 puffs/day) and leukotriene antagonists (37%).
In children leukotriene antagonists may be used as monotherapy in those with milder symptoms and are especially effective in exercise-induced asthma.
Leukotriene antagonists like Singulair have become a common adjuvant along with inhaled steroids and slow-acting, long-duration bronchodilators in the management of asthma.
Leukotriene antagonists have been recommended on a trial basis with follow-up to evaluate the treatment response.