and other abnormal color phases are rare in the wild because they are often selected against (Moller and Mousseau, 2001; Caro, 2005).
is an unusual coloration pattern caused by developmental anomalies in the differentiation of the pigment cells, usually due to genetic mutations or environmental factors that cause an excess or deficit in the metabolism of dermal pigmentation, restricted to specific body region or throughout the entire body (Duellman & Trueb, 1994).
Here, we report the first record of leucism
for Atractus reticulatus, a fossorial species of ground snake inhabiting the Pampas, Campos, southern Cerrado and transitional zones, occurring from Lowland to Lower Montane Semi-deciduous Forests between 0-1100 m high, from Southeastern and Southern Brazil, to Argentina and Uruguay (Passos et al., 2010).
is a condition caused by a genetic mutation which prevents the melanin pigmentation from being deposited on a bird's feathers.
Miller (2005) noted that piebaldism has been referred to as partial albinism by some investigators, whereas others have not considered the differences between piebaldism and leucism
; thus, the terminology associated with reports of abnormally pigmented animals frequently is confounded (Abreu et al.
The snapper had leucism
, which is the condition of missing multiple kinds of skin pigmentation, resulting in whitish, pale skin.
But this white crow appears to have partial albinism (leucism
) as its feathers are not all-white and have a fair bit of brownish grey around the plumage.
Partial albinism ("leucism
," see below), was responsible for the recognition of several species of primates: Lesson (1831, plate XXXII) named Troglodytes leucoprymnus, as a distinct species of chimpanzee (now known as Pan troglodytes) based on a partially leucistic individual.
The usual coloration mutations are albinism, a total absence of pigments (i.e., affects hair, eyes, skin), and leucism
, a partial or total melanin reduction in fur or skin pigmentation (Van Grouw, 2006).
Many of these feathers and some greater coverts had white tips, evidently leucism
. Most or all of the wing coverts were new, although some of the greater coverts appeared to be still growing.
Spots had a rare genetic condition called leucism
(LOO'-sih-zem) that reduces the color pigmentation in the skin.