Leishmania major


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Leishmania

 [lēsh-ma´ne-ah]
a genus of protozoa comprising parasites of worldwide distribution, several species of which are pathogenic for humans. All species are morphologically indistinguishable, and therefore the organisms have usually been assigned to species and subspecies according to their geographic origin, the clinical syndrome they produce, and their ecologic characteristics. They have also been separated based on their tendency to cause visceral, cutaneous, or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. In some classifications, Leishmania is grouped in four complexes comprising species and subspecies: L. donovani, L. tropica, L. mexicana, and L. viannia.
Life cycle of Leishmania. From Mahon and Manuselis, 2000.
Leishmania brazilien´sis Leishmania viannia.
Leishmania donova´ni donova´ni a subspecies of the L. donovani complex causing the classic form of visceral leishmaniasis in India. It is transmitted by the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes, with humans being the only major reservoir hosts. Called also L. donovani.
Leishmania ma´jor a species of the L. tropica complex, transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi, causing the rural form of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Called also L. tropica major.
Leishmania mexica´na a complex comprising the species and subspecies causing the New World form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans: L. m. mexicana, L. m. amazonensis, and L. pifanoi.
Leishmania tro´pica
1. a complex comprising the species causing the Old World form of cutaneous leishmaniasis: L. tropica, L. major, and L. aethiopica.
2. a species of the L. tropica complex causing the urban form of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. It is found in Iran, Iraq, and India, transmitted by Phlebotomus sergenti; and in southern France, Italy and certain Mediterranean islands, transmitted by P. papatasi. Human to human transmission may also occur.
Leishmania vian´nia a taxonomic complex comprising the subspecies that cause mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in its various forms; all of the subspecies develop in the midgut, foregut, and hindgut of their sandfly vectors. Formerly called L. braziliensis.

Leish·man·i·a ma·jor

a species responsible for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a large area of the Mediterranean region and Asia Minor. The animal reservoirs are usually ground squirrels, such as Rhombomys opimus in parts of Russia and elsewhere in south central Asia, and other rodents in northwest India, the Middle East, and northern Africa; proven sandfly vectors include Phlebotomus papatasi, P. duboscqi, and P. salehi.

Leishmania major

A species of Leishmania transmissible by sandflies and causing skin infections in humans. Infection with L. major is found principally in the Middle East, East Africa, and the Mediterranean.
See also: Leishmania
References in periodicals archive ?
High infection frequency, low diversity-of Leishmania major and first detection of Leishmania turanica in human in northern Iran.
Vaccination with DNA encoding the immunodominant LACK parasite antigen confers protective immunity to mice infected with Leishmania major. J Exper Med 1997; 186(7): 1137-1147.
Silva et al., "Comparative effect of ion calcium and magnesium in the activation and infection of the murine macrophage by Leishmania major" Biol Res, vol.
Immunogenicity of HLA-DR1 Restricted Peptides Derived from Leishmania major gp63 Using FVB/N-DR1 Transgenic Mouse Model.
Leishmania major LmAQP1 High LmAQP[alpha]-[delta] n.d.
Nanosilver in the treatment of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major [MRHO/IR/75/ER]: an in vitro in vivo study: DARU, 17(4): 285-289.
Leishmania major and L tropica were detected in 97 cases (97%) and 1 case (1%), respectively, of typical and atypical CL by nested PCR assay.
Daneshbod, "Mixed mucosal Leishmaniasis infection caused by Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major" Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.
Volf, "Leishmania major glycosylation mutants require phosphoglycans ([lpgl.sup.-]) but not lipophosphoglycan (Ipgl) for survival in permissive sand fly vectors," PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol.
Louzir, "Selection of endogenous reference genes for gene expression analysis in Leishmania major developmental stages," Parasitology Research, vol.
Louis, "Leishmania major interferes with antigen presentation by infected macrophages," Journal of Immunology, vol.
The most common species in the Middle East are Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica.
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