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a species that is the causal agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Mediterranean and adjacent countries, the south central section of western Asia, eastern India, northern China, Kenya, Ethiopia, and the Sudan; also found in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela; in the Old World, it is transmitted by various species of Phlebotomus; New World vectors are species of Lutzomyia; dogs and other carnivores are known as reservoir hosts in some areas. The intracellular amastigote form multiplies in macrophages and produces a reticuloendothelial hyperplasia grossly affecting the spleen and liver, with other lymphoid tissues being involved as well, resulting in severe hepatosplenomegaly, which usually is fatal if untreated.
The causative agent of kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis).
See also: Leishmania
a genus of protozoan parasites transmitted by sandflies, which also act as intermediate hosts.
found in lizards and other mammals.
reservoir hosts are hyraxes.
Leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis
reservoir hosts are forest rodents. Causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.
Leishmania brasiliensis guyanensis
dogs are infected; in humans the disease is the cutaneous form in most cases.
Leishmania brasiliensis panamensis
reservoirs are sloths, kinkajous and many other forest animals.
causes visceral leishmaniasis in humans and dogs.
causes visceral leishmaniasis in humans and in carnivores.
causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in guinea pigs.
causes visceral leishmaniasis in dogs and other carnivores. In humans it is children who are most commonly affected.
dogs and bush mammals are reservoir hosts. In humans this is the cause of oriental sore, the important cutaneous form of the disease.
Leishmania mexicana amazonensis
causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans. Rodents and bush animals are reservoir hosts.
Leishmania mexicana mexicana
reservoir hosts are rodents; causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.
Leishmania mexicana pifanoi
causes chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.
causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans; probably infests dogs.
causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans and dogs.