An esophagram was subsequently performed, and demonstrated a fistulous connection between the esophagus and the left mainstem bronchus
(Figures 1 and 2).
Then, with its bent blocker balloon tip angled towards the left, the deflated and lubricated Coopdech catheter was passed within the ETT lumen blindly and with little difficulty through the Murphy eye into the left mainstem bronchus
3) The usual affected sites are three points of anatomic narrowing: the cricopharynx, the crossing of the left mainstem bronchus
or aortic arch, and the gastroesophageal junction.
Barium swallow imaging indicated mild esophageal dysmotility, nasopharyngoscopy identified a pulsatile midline mass in the nasopharynx, and bronchoscopy detected severe laryngomalacia and mild compression of the left mainstem bronchus
Bronchoscopy demonstrated a large black and gray plaque in the left mainstem bronchus
(Figure 2) and multiple smaller gray and black deposits in the left upper lobe, left lower lobe, and right lower lobe.
7) Type IIB is defined by a complete absence of the right bronchial tree, with the right lung being supplied by a bridging bronchus from the left mainstem bronchus
The endobronchial blocker was advanced through its anterior channel and directed into the right or left mainstem bronchus under vision with a bronchoscope down the main lumen of the Univent endotracheal tube.
The bronchoscope was then placed in the endobronchial lumen into the left mainstem bronchus and the tube then advanced over the bronchoscope into the bronchus.
Some cases of involvement of the right pulmonary lobe and left mainstem bronchus
have been reported.
The left lung of each deceased individual was cannulated through the left mainstem bronchus and inflation-fixed with 2% glutaraldehyde at a hydrostatic pressure of 30 cm of water for a period of 2 hr from a constant-pressure gravity apparatus.
Beginning at the left mainstem bronchus, the airways were microdissected using razor blades, scissors, and a dissecting microscope along two pathways leading to the apico-posterior and apico-anterior portions of the left upper lobe (Figure 1C,D).
The left mainstem bronchus
was also narrowed by significant tumor mass effect.