The main components of an airway (i.e., trachea, carina, left mainstem bronchus
, and right mainstem bronchus) were all made using onsite 3D printers using Platinum Series ABS Filaments (Airwolf 3D Printers, Costa Mesa, CA) which are composed of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer.
The prosthesis was found in the left mainstem bronchus
The right lower lobe bronchus (30%) and left mainstem bronchus
(20%) were the most common locations of foreign bodies .
However, the distal trachea and left mainstem bronchus
appeared dynamically collapsed.
His trachea was not deviated and his left mainstem bronchus
was 50 mm in length.
An esophagram was subsequently performed, and demonstrated a fistulous connection between the esophagus and the left mainstem bronchus
(Figures 1 and 2).
Then, with its bent blocker balloon tip angled towards the left, the deflated and lubricated Coopdech catheter was passed within the ETT lumen blindly and with little difficulty through the Murphy eye into the left mainstem bronchus
Barium swallow imaging indicated mild esophageal dysmotility, nasopharyngoscopy identified a pulsatile midline mass in the nasopharynx, and bronchoscopy detected severe laryngomalacia and mild compression of the left mainstem bronchus
. Axial computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a bone defect in the middle portion of the sella turcica (figure, A).
Bronchoscopy demonstrated a large black and gray plaque in the left mainstem bronchus
(Figure 2) and multiple smaller gray and black deposits in the left upper lobe, left lower lobe, and right lower lobe.
(7) Type IIB is defined by a complete absence of the right bronchial tree, with the right lung being supplied by a bridging bronchus from the left mainstem bronchus
. (7) The right lung is commonly hypoplastic.
The endobronchial blocker was advanced through its anterior channel and directed into the right or left mainstem bronchus
under vision with a bronchoscope down the main lumen of the Univent endotracheal tube.
Some cases of involvement of the right pulmonary lobe and left mainstem bronchus
have been reported.