But this limner was very short sighted." (43) Leeuwenhoek
About 350 years ago Anton van Leeuwenhoek
first spotted bacteria in samples of saliva and pond water with a primitive microscope.
 Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Hospital, Amsterdam, Netherlands;
There has been a steady progression in the sophistication of uroscopy, or urinalysis by the senses, through the millennia: from ancient Hindus noting that black ants were attracted to sweet urine, to the medieval development of the graduated urine glass known as a matula for determining color; from the first qualitative urine glucose test in 1850 to automated dipstick readers in the 1970s; from Leeuwenhoek
's single lens microscope in 1595 to urine particle flow cytometers of today.
Data were collected from two internationally recognized bladder cancer centers: the Department of Urology at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark (DK), and the Netherlands Cancer Institute Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
In 50 chapters, ophthalmologists from Europe, India, the US, and South Africa describe the history of the anatomy and function of the eye and steps in the development of ocular surgery; the correction of refractive anomalies like myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism; the eye in childhood; contributions to the field of ocular diagnosis, treatment, and surgery by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
, Louis Braille, John Dalton, and others; eye diseases of historical people and artists and how it affected the work of painters, including William Turner and Claude Monet, as well as J.S.
Dutch cloth merchant Anton van Leeuwenhoek
(1632-1723) is considered the father of microscopy.
(3) Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
In 1683, the biologist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
was able to describe for the first time the unicellular organisms now called protozoa.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
was the first scientist who observed microorganisms with a microscope in 1683  and with this the era of microbiology began.