Lavoisier


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Lavoisier

 [lah-vwah-zya´]
Antoine Laurent (1743–1794). French chemist, born in Paris and later guillotined by the French Revolutionists. Lavoisier demolished the phlogiston theory (a theory of combustion) and explained the true nature of respiration by his introduction of quantitative relations in chemistry. He was secretary and treasurer of a committee seeking the uniformity of weights and measures in France, which led to the establishment of the metric system.

Lavoisier

(la-vwah'sē-yā),
Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. French lawyer, chemist, and civil servant; his 1789 Elements of Chemistry offered a new and more systematic understanding of the discipline. Died on the guillotine during the Terror in 1794, a victim of the French Revolution.
References in periodicals archive ?
Lord Ritchie Calder en un articulo publicado en "Investigacion y Ciencia" en 1982 cuenta como en el caso de la demostracion de la verdadera composicion del agua, no fue Lavoisier su primer realizador, parece ser que el quimico frances, Pierre Joseph Macquer (1718-1784) fue el pionero en constatar la posibilidad de obtener agua por combustion del hidrogeno.
However, Joseph Coquette published in 1792, in the most isolated viceroyalty of the Spanish crown in America, Principios de Quimica Fisica para servir de Introduccion a la Historia Natural del Peru, (Principles of Physical Chemistry to serve as an Introduction to the Natural History of Peru; Coquette, 1792c), which is shortened hereon to 'Principles', an up-to-date text with the last discoveries and nomenclature of the "new chemistry" which Lavoisier had compiled only 3 years earlier in his revolutionary book Traite elementaire de la Chimie, presente dans un ordre nouveau et d'apres les decouvertes modernes (Elements of Chemistry; Lavoisier, 1789) denoted here as 'Traite'.
Fourcroy had studied with Lavoisier after training as a doctor and finished an utter convert to the power and independence of chemistry.
Nacia asi una de las interpretaciones que mas fortuna tuvo en la historiografia posterior: Lavoisier como genio teorizador y organizador del saber experimental acumulado por sus contemporaneos:
According to Kuhn, after Lavoisier discovered oxygen, he not only "saw nature differently," he "worked in a different world.
As part of this work, Lavoisier began a detailed study of the various waters of France.
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), the founder of modern chemistry, kept a collection of minerals, as did other prominent chemists such as Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1763-1829), the discoverer of chromium.
17) Lavoisier wrote in 1789: 'From these phenomena it appears that oxygen is the bond of union between metals and acids; and from this we are led to suppose that oxygen is contained in all substances which have a strong affinity with acids: Hence it is very probably the four eminently salifiable earths contain oxygen and their capability of uniting with acids is produced by the intermediation of that element'.
The authors profile Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, John Dalton, Humphry Davy, and eighteen other chemists of note in chronological order.
In the late 18th century, chemists Robert Boyle and Antoine Lavoisier developed the idea of simple substances.
Antoine Lavoisier correctly interpreted Priestley's experiment as having produced a new element, but did not attribute much credit to the Englishman.
Securite Alimentaire du Consommateur - 2nd Edition - Manfred and Nicole Moll - Collection Sciences et Techniques Agroalimentaires - Editions TEC & DOC - Librairie Lavoisier: 11 rue Lavoisier - 75 PARIS - Tel: 33 (0)1 42 65 39 95 - Fax: 33 (0)1 42 65 02 46 - www.