Lavoisier


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

Lavoisier

 [lah-vwah-zya´]
Antoine Laurent (1743–1794). French chemist, born in Paris and later guillotined by the French Revolutionists. Lavoisier demolished the phlogiston theory (a theory of combustion) and explained the true nature of respiration by his introduction of quantitative relations in chemistry. He was secretary and treasurer of a committee seeking the uniformity of weights and measures in France, which led to the establishment of the metric system.

Lavoisier

(la-vwah'sē-yā),
Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. French lawyer, chemist, and civil servant; his 1789 Elements of Chemistry offered a new and more systematic understanding of the discipline. Died on the guillotine during the Terror in 1794, a victim of the French Revolution.
References in periodicals archive ?
Lord Ritchie Calder en un articulo publicado en "Investigacion y Ciencia" en 1982 cuenta como en el caso de la demostracion de la verdadera composicion del agua, no fue Lavoisier su primer realizador, parece ser que el quimico frances, Pierre Joseph Macquer (1718-1784) fue el pionero en constatar la posibilidad de obtener agua por combustion del hidrogeno.
Joseph Coquette, primeiro diretor do Tribunal de Mineria de Lima, publicou no Mercurio Peruano (1792) um texto de quimica: "Principios de Quimica Fisica ...", o primeiro texto sobre a nova quimica publicado na America, pois o livro de Lavoisier (1789) em castelhano foi impresso no Mexico em 1797.
Lavoisier completed the turn to "philosophical chemistry" severing all ties between the discipline and its associated applications.
Claiming that science involves an element of "tacit knowledge," Hanson and Kuhn treated scientific theories as "gestalts" and scientific changes as "gestalt switches," or "conversion experiences." According to Kuhn, after Lavoisier discovered oxygen, he not only "saw nature differently," he "worked in a different world." (16)
A lifelong resident of Paris, Lavoisier received his education at the College Mazarin, where he received a classical education and the best scientific training available in France.
In collaboration with a French scientist, Pierre-Simon de Laplace (1749-1827), Lavoisier undertook a series of experiments designed to measure the amount of heat and carbon dioxide produced by a guinea pig.
In the period 1840--85 chemists preferred a theory with 3 major conceptual problems (the Liebig Theory of Acids) to Lavoisier's which had only one major conceptual problem (why are the halogen hydrides acids?).
Experimenting with the property of gases, he discovered what he called "dephlogisticated air," later named oxygen by Lavoisier (1743-1794).
Lives and Times of Great Pioneers in Chemistry: (Lavoisier to Sanger)
In the late 18th century, chemists Robert Boyle and Antoine Lavoisier developed the idea of simple substances.