Root morphology: The present study indicated that 150 mM NaCl treatment had the inhibited effects on total root length, root projected area, root surface area, root diameter, root volume and lateral root
number (Table 2).
In response to light, several molecules and metabolites, such as phytohormones, sucrose, RNA's and proteins, are produced in the aerial part and mobilized at the roots, where they trigger photomorphogenic changes, such as root growth and lateral root
emission (LEE et al., 2017).
Galls of the four varieties had lateral roots
, with these being particularly abundant in Ojo de Senorita and Negra Imilla; this characteristic has been previously observed in several associations of this nematode with other vegetable crops ( Vovlas et al., 2007; Tordable et al., 2010).
Dry biomass values of seedling components before treatments were 0.173 [+ or -] 0.084 g, 0.502 [+ or -] 0.128 g, 0.562 [+ or -] 0.174 g, 0.189 [+ or -] 0.061 g and 0.207 [+ or -] 0.058 for taproot, lateral roots
, needles, bark and stele, respectively.
of lateral roots
, Fresh roots weight and RCI for S.
When the median nerve is formed by three roots the additional root can come from either lateral cord (two lateral roots
) or medial cord (two medial roots).
Moreover, Cu toxicity resulted in shortened internodes, short, fragile shoots and roots, curling in roots, absence of lateral roots
or roots hairs, due to mobility of metals in the plants (Sheldon and Menzies, 2005).
In contrast, in the absence of Al, the index revealed a markedly herringbone pattern, with a value (0.99) near the theoretical maximum (1.0), indicating that the lateral roots
were located on the primary root.
Mitotic index, root length and number of lateral roots
When trees are direct-seeded, for example, the primary roots must do the initial soil exploration, whereas transplanted seedlings use their lateral roots
Root distribution was determined by separating the lateral roots
from the taproot.
The pericycle is related to the formation of lateral roots
(Figure 1), which play an important role in plant development, facilitating oxygen diffusion from the base to the apex as well as water, ion, and nutrient uptake [32, 33], allowing the construction of ramified root systems.