In malignant diseases, the paralysis of the facial nerve may be due to the perineural infiltration of the temporal bone or facial nerve, central nervous system lymphoma or invasion to the meninx, infection and hemorrhage around the facial nerve, chemotherapy associated toxicity to the nerve and reactivation of the latent viral infection
. [1,5-7] Central nervous system involvement is more common in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Some viral miRNAs, including those which are analogs to host miRNAs and those which are virus-specific, seem to exert an important role in the establishment of a latent viral infection
by suppression of an effective host immune response or through blockade of apoptotic processes in the infected cells [105, 106].
(2) Latent viral infection
appears to principally involve the urinary tract, (1,3) with rates of urinary shedding of virus ranging from 0% to 62%.
(7) Although it was first assumed that the geniculate ganglion is the location of this latent viral infection
, recent neuroimaging and histopathologic evidence (8,9) places the earliest enhancement (on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) in the fundus of the internal auditory canal (figure 3).
The findings could have important implications for improved understanding of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathogenesis; prior studies suggest that latent viral infection
affects development of this disease.
In renal transplant recipients who are also immunosuppressed, activation of the latent viral infection
(either of donor or recipient origin) usually occurs within 2 months to 5 years (median 9 months) posttransplantation. De novo infection may also occur, but is rare.
This study highlights the role of these silent, latent viral infections
that are totally asymptomatic," said Satya Dandekar, a lead researcher.
Among the most common latent viral infections
are Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV).
Several viruses are also known to affect apoptotic pathways which permit the maintenance of latent viral infections
or enhance the efficiency of viral replication (14).
The labeling changes must reflect the reported increased risk for opportunistic infections, including activation of latent viral infections
. These include BK virus-associated nephropathy, which can mainly affect kidney transplant patients.