The most frequently occurring late effects
of childhood cancer are neurocognitive and psychological, cardiopulmonary, and endocrine issues that impact growth and fertility, musculoskeletal, and second cancers.
The committee stressed that the late effects
of AI therapy as well as the possible adverse effects of extended AI therapy, have not yet been fully characterized.
Most of these patients will not suffer relapse but live with the consequences of treatment, including possible late effects
of surgery, endocrine therapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and, increasingly, biological therapy.
One of the severe and often fatal late effects
is the occurrence of secondary malignancies.
In this text, 20 leading European and American specialists in childhood cancer late effects
contribute eight chapters discussing their experiences and reviewing the latest scientific advances concerning key clinical topics related to childhood cancer therapies.
Not until relatively recent times, however, did people understand that polio's late effects
may not emerge until 30 or more years after the initial event--and then in perhaps only 60% of individuals who experienced paralytic polio.
The most frequently reported late effects
of polio are weakness and excessive fatigue, followed by pain, breathing difficulties, swallowing problems, intolerance to cold, cognitive changes, and sleep disturbances.
The early and late effects
of intracarotid infusion of the drug vehicle (HCD) are summarized in Table 1.
This case demonstrates the potential late effects
of this syndrome, and it indicates that early mortality is not inevitable.
Older children can die of the late effects
``Because of this, we can assess possible late effects
of this form of treatment.
This is referred to as post-poliomyelitis (i.e., post-polio) syndrome and used interchangeably with "late sequelae" and "late effects
" of poliomyelitis (Halstead, 1991).