laryngeal paralysis

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laryngeal paralysis

ENT Loss of function of one or both vocal folds. See Recurrent laryngeal nerve.

laryngeal paralysis

Loss of vocal fold mobility. Common causes include surgical trauma to the recurrent laryngeal nerve or invasion of the nerve by a tumor.
Synonym: vocal paralysis
See also: paralysis


pertaining to the larynx.

laryngeal adductory reflex, adduction test
slapping of the saddle region of a horse just behind the withers causes a flickering, adductory movement of the contralateral arytenoid cartilage in normal horses. The movement of the cartilage can be viewed endoscopically. The reflex is abolished by damage to the adductory component of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, by lesions in the spinal cord in the anterior thoracic region and by excitement. Called also slap test.
laryngeal airsacculitis
inflammation of the large air sacs found attached to the larynx in great apes.
laryngeal cartilage
includes epiglottis, thyroid, cricoid, and the paired arytenoid cartilages.
laryngeal chondritis
necrosis and ulceration of laryngeal mucosa caudal to the vocal cords; seen in calves and especially in Texel and Southdown sheep.
laryngeal chondroma
can cause laryngeal obstruction in horses.
laryngeal collapse
a cause of upper airway obstruction, particularly in brachycephalic dogs.
laryngeal congenital anomalies
epiglottal hypoplasia (horse, pig) is a rare anomaly.
laryngeal contact ulcers
are ulcerative lesions which develop at the site of minor abrasions caused by frequent contact and rubbing of the epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages.
laryngeal edema
a part of acute inflammation of the laryngeal mucosa due to infection, allergy or inhalation of irritant materials. It causes obstruction to air flow, stertor, dyspnea and potentially asphyxia.
everted laryngeal saccules
the laryngeal saccules protrude into the lumen of the larynx, become edematous and cause upper airway obstruction with increased inspiratory effort.
laryngeal fremitus
a vibration palpable at the throat with partial obstruction of the larynx.
laryngeal hemiplegia
unilateral paralysis, called also roaring, is a common condition in horses, causing a reduction in exercise tolerance and a loud stertor at exercise. Bilateral paralysis causes a more severe but similar syndrome.
laryngeal mound
a conspicuous mound in the throat of birds; carries the entrance to the larynx.
laryngeal necrobacillosis
the principal lesion in calf diphtheria.
laryngeal necrosis
occurs in outbreaks in feedlot steers at the site of contact ulcers on the larynx. The common bacteria in the lesions is Fusobacterium necrophorum.
laryngeal neoplasm
includes chondroma, papilloma.
laryngeal neuropathy
dysfuction, most commonly unilateral hemiplegia, of the recurrent layngeal nerve; see roaring.
laryngeal obstruction
may be acute or chronic, with signs varying to match. Stertor, inspiratory dyspnea and local signs, such as pain, swelling and the presence of foreign bodies, constitute the clinical syndrome.
laryngeal papilloma
occurs in feedlot steers at the site of contact ulcers on the larynx.
laryngeal paralysis
can result from lesions of the vagus or recurrent laryngeal nerves, and may be acquired or congenital. It is seen in association with hypothyroidism in dogs. An inherited laryngeal paralysis occurs in the Bouvier des Flandres breed of dogs, causing varying degrees of noisy respirations and upper airway obstruction from several months of age. In immature Dalmatian dogs it is seen as part of a more widespread polyneuropathy with megaesophagus, neurologic deficits. See also laryngeal hemiplegia (above).
laryngeal polyp
recorded in horses in association with Besnoitia spp. infection.
laryngeal pyriform recesses
permit the grazing ruminant to breathe, and to sniff the air, while eating and ruminating.
laryngeal saccule
the lining of the laryngeal ventricle.
laryngeal sounds
the normal sounds of air going in and out past the larynx, as heard with a stethoscope. When there is stenosis the sounds are loud and harsh, also called stertor; with catarrhal inflammation they are gurgling.
laryngeal spasm
a reflex constriction of the larynx because of contact with foreign material being inhaled or during administration of a gaseous anesthetic, especially in cats. May cause asphyxiation.
laryngeal sphincteric girdle
the muscles that constrict the laryngeal opening, and the cricoarytenoid, transverse arytenoid and thyroarytenoid muscles.
laryngeal stenosis
may follow laryngeal surgery, inury (particularly prolonged intubation), or infection; granulation tissue and cartilage degeneration and collapse can cause a progressive reduction in the airway.
laryngeal stertor
loud breath sounds caused by a narrowing of the laryngeal lumen.
laryngeal ulceration
common subclinical lesion in feedlot cattle; lesions are at points of apposition of vocal processes and medial angles of arytenoid processes.
laryngeal ventricle
a bilateral outpocketing of the laryngeal mucosa in the dog, pig and horse. In the dog and the horse they are between the vocal and vestibular folds in the lateral walls of the laryngeal vestibule. In the pig they are in the lateral wall of the glottis.
laryngeal ventriculectomy
removal of the mucosa lining the relevant laryngeal ventricle as a treatment of laryngeal hemiplegia in horses.
laryngeal vestibule
the short space from the entrance to the larynx to the rima glottidis.


loss or impairment of motor function in a part due to a lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism; also, by analogy, impairment of sensory function (sensory paralysis). Called also palsy. Motor paralysis may be expressed as flaccid, in the case of lower motor neuron lesion, or spastic, in the case of an upper motor neuron lesion. See also paraplegia, quadriplegia, hemiplegia and paralyses of individual cranial and peripheral nerves.

paralysis of accommodation
paralysis of the ciliary muscles of the eye so as to prevent accommodation.
anal paralysis
manifested by flaccidity and lack of tone of the anal sphincter, and loss of house training restraint in companion animals.
antepartum paralysis
pressure on sciatic nerves by a large fetus in late pregnancy in a cow can cause posterior paralysis that is cured by a cesarean section.
ascending paralysis
spinal paralysis that progresses forwards involving first the hindlimbs then the forelimbs, then the intercostal muscles, then the diaphragm, and finally the muscles of the neck.
birth paralysis
that due to injury received by the neonate at birth.
bladder paralysis
manifested by fullness of the bladder and response to manual pressure. See also motor paralytic urinary bladder.
cage paralysis
see thiamin nutritional deficiency.
central paralysis
any paralysis due to a lesion of the brain or spinal cord.
cerebral paralysis
paralysis caused by some intracranial lesion.
Chastek paralysis
see thiamin nutritional deficiency.
compression paralysis
that caused by pressure on a nerve.
congenital paralysis
paralysis of the newborn. Many cases are due to birth trauma especially when lay persons exert excessive traction. Other causes are enzootic ataxia, inherited congenital paraplegias in calves and pigs, spina bifida and spinal dysraphism and occipito-alanto-axial malformations in foals and puppies.
conjugate paralysis
loss of ability to perform some parallel ocular movements.
coonhound paralysis
see idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis.
crossed paralysis
paralysis affecting one side of the head and the other side of the body.
curled toe paralysis
a disease of poultry caused by a nutritional deficiency of riboflavin. See also curled toe paralysis.
decubitus paralysis
paralysis due to pressure on a nerve from lying for a long time in one position.
esophageal paralysis
manifested by inability to swallow, and regurgitation.
facial paralysis
weakening or paralysis of the facial nerve. See also facial paralysis.
flaccid paralysis
paralysis characterized by loss of voluntary movement, decreased tone of limb muscles, absence of tendon reflexes and neurogenic atrophy.
immunological paralysis
the absence of immune response to a specific antigen. See also tolerance.
infectious bulbar paralysis
ischemic paralysis
local paralysis due to stoppage of circulation.
lambing paralysis
maternal obstetric paralysis in the ewe.
laryngeal paralysis
see laryngeal hemiplegia.
mixed paralysis
combined motor and sensory paralysis.
motor paralysis
paralysis of the voluntary muscles.
nerve paralysis
paralysis caused by damage to the local motor nerve supply. See also peripheral nerve paralysis (below).
obstetric paralysis
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
partial paralysis
see paresis.
peripheral nerve paralysis
the part deprived of its peripheral nerve supply shows flaccid paralysis, absence of spinal reflexes, muscle atrophy and a subnormal temperature.
postcalving paralysis
see maternal obstetric paralysis.
posterior paralysis
paralysis of the hindlimbs, tail and perineum. See also paraplegia.
range paralysis
sensory paralysis
loss of sensation resulting from a morbid process.
spastic paralysis
paralysis with rigidity of the muscles and heightened deep muscle reflexes.
tongue paralysis
see hypoglossal nerve paralysis.
References in periodicals archive ?
These include myasthenia gravis (a neuromuscular disease caused by an inability of certain nerve receptors to function properly); nerve disorders associated with diabetes mellitus (in which the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin which is required for the body to efficiently process sugars, fats, and proteins); and laryngeal paralysis associated with hypothyroidism.
Laryngospasm is a recognized complication of hypocalcemia; however, our patient had bilateral laryngeal paralysis.
He doesn't get around too well anymore; he's deaf as a fence post, and besides aches and pains he suffers from laryngeal paralysis.
Breed specific projects include granulomatous colitis in the Boxer, laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy in the Labrador Retriever, protein-losing enteropathy and protein-losing nephropathy in the Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier, and Scottie Cramp in the Scottish Terrier.
Unilateral laryngeal paralysis can arise from many different causes.