Parametric breather surfaces are known in one-to-one correspondence with the solutions of a certain non-linear wave-equation, i.e., the so-called Sine-Gordon Equation. It turns out, solutions to this equation correspond to unique pseudospherical surfaces, namely soliton. Breather surface corresponds to a time-periodic 2-soliton solution.

Parametric breather surface has the following parametric equations :

Where , controls how far the tip goes, and controls the girth.

When , , and :

With orthographic projection :

About Pseudospherical Surfaces :

Surface in having constant Gaussian curvature are usually called pseudospherical surfaces.

If is a surface with Gaussian curvature then it is known that there exists a local asymptotic coordinate system on such that the first and second fundamental forms are:

, and ,

where is the angle between asymptotic lines (the x-curves and t-curves). The Gauss-Codazzi equations for in these coordinates become a single equation, the sine-Gordon equation (SGE) :

Chuu-Lian Terng. 2004. Lecture notes on curves and surfaces in , available here.

Chuu-Lian Terng. 1990s. About Pseudospherical Surfaces, available here.

Richard S Palais. 2003. A Modern Course on Curves and Surfaces, available here.

About 3D-XplorMath :

3D-XplorMath is a Mathematical Visualization program. The older original version, written in Pascal, runs only on Macintosh computers, but there is also a newer cross-platform Java version, called 3D-XplorMath-J which is written in the Java programming language; to use it, you must have Java 5.0 or higher installed on your computer.

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