Lamarckism


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Related to Lamarckism: Epigenetics

Lamarckism

(lə-mär′kĭz′əm) also

Lamarckianism

(-kē-ə-nĭz′əm)
n.
A theory of biological evolution holding that the changes occurring in an organism through use and disuse of its body parts in response to environmental change are inherited by its offspring.

Lamarckism

The discredited doctrine that species can change into new species as a result of characteristics acquired as a result of striving to overcome environmental disadvantages. It was claimed that such acquired characteristics became hereditary. (Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck, 1744–1829, French naturalist).

Lamarckism

the theory of inheritance of ACQUIRED CHARACTERS, which suggests that the structures developed during the lifetime of an organism, through use, are passed on as inherited characters to the next generation. Evolutionary change might thus be achieved through the transmission of these acquired characters. This theory, proposed by Jean Baptiste de LAMARCK, is now generally discounted in favour of DARWINISM, where favoured characters of use to a particular organism are maintained by selection, whereas unfavourable characters are selected against. Thus, Lamarck might have claimed that blacksmith's sons were brawny because of their father's profession, whereas Darwin would say that the reason the father was a blacksmith was because he was brawny and brawny men tend to have brawny offspring. LYSENKO attempted unsuccessfully to apply Lamarckian theory to the development of crop plants in the USSR in the 1930s.
References in periodicals archive ?
Spencer, whose faith was placed in progress and Lamarckism, was influential at the time Darwin wrote.
Keywords: George Bernard Shaw, Evolution, Darwinism, Lamarckism
(2) That's Lamarckism, but a much more sophisticated version than the original.
Lamarckism thus fell into general disrespect as far as plants and animals are concerned.
A: In the mind of Karl Marx, Darwinism helped to justify the use of violence, but the Soviet Union preferred a different theory of evolution, Lamarckism. The Nazis drew heavily on Darwinism.
This is a whole new way of looking at genetics and has been dubbed the "new Lamarckism".
Eyebrows may understandably have been raised by Koestler's effort to revive Lamarckism, but not by his informed questioning of Darwinism or his reflections on the relationship between science and religion.
Wilson deploys Freud's classic study of frog reflexes to critically trouble the contemporary dismissal of Lamarckism. In a fascinating account of Charles Darwin's early endorsement of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's theory of inheritance, Wilson draws attention to the contradiction between the rejection of nongenetically inherited characteristics and the acceptance of inherited characteristics within the psychological realm.
In a way, this opens the door to Lamarckism, the transmission and inheritance of environmentally caused characteristics--heretofore discounted in evolutionary biology.
Whatever, then, may be said of Lamarckism, Darwinism and other theories of Evolution, the fact of Evolution, as the matter now stands, is scarcely any longer a matter for controversy.
The nonrandomness of McClintock's theory of transposition was particularly problematic because it seemed to lend support to Lamarckism, which had little scientific respect.
The whole thing smacked of Lamarckism, the long-rejected idea that environmental influences can change an animal or plant's structure and offspring can inherit that change.