Umbilical cord blood can be considered as a mark-er for foetal environment in the uterus and it largely reflects fetal hormone levels in late gestation.1 It is a non-invasive method for assessing fetal circulation without posing significant risks to the mother and the newborn.2 Typically cord blood is obtained after delivery and cord blood samples have nearly similar quantities of venous and arterial components.3 Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone, formed mainly by lactotrophs
cells (in the anterior pituitary gland).
It acts on D2 receptors present in lactotrophs
of anterior pituitary to decrease secretion of prolactin.
It is auto-regulated during expression and mediates gene expression especially in somatotrophs, lactotrophs
, and thyrotrophs , which play pivotal roles in the growth of the pituitary and hormone secretion in animals .
Ghrelin treatment protects lactotrophs
from apoptosis in the pituitary of diabetic rats.
, representing about 20% of the cells encompassing the anterior pituitary and found in its lateral portion, secrete prolactin .
Inactivating mutations in PROP1 perturb ontogenesis of pituitary gonadotrophs, somatotrophs, lactotrophs
, and thyrotrophs.
Immunoexpression was mainly observed in the cytoplasm of isolated lactotrophs
or lactotropic cells forming follicular structures.
It was previously described that in photoperiodic species, GnRH stimulates prolactin release from lactotrophs
only during the breeding season .
This enlargement of the pituitary is primarily believed to be due to increase in the number and size of thyrotrophs and lactotrophs
in the pituitary gland (3).
Such changes are likely to occur in the hypothalamus, as 5-HT stimulates and DA inhibits the release of PRL from the anterior pituitary lactotrophs
Prolactin synthesis and release from the lactotrophs
are controlled by neurotransmitters which act on the pituitary via hypothalamus.
Pit-1 gene expression is essential for the growth of some regulatory processes in the body of animals such as the ability of normal survival, differentiation and development of the three cell types of adenohypophysis, namely somatotrophs, lactotrophs
and thyrotrophs [2,3].