Ethanol induces hyperprolactinemia by increasing prolactin release and lactotrope
growth in female rats.
(2004) stated that Pit-1 is an essential for development of somatotrope, lactotrope
, and thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary and it transactives expression of the genes encoding GH, PRL, and TSH-b.
In this review we summarize data on angiogenesis in human pituitary adenomas, as well as in two mouse models of dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas: the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) knockout mouse ([Drd2.sup.-/-])  and the lactotrope
specific D2R knockout mouse (lacD2RKO) generated by Cre LoxP technology .
Based on murine expression of IGSF1 protein in thyrotropes, somatotropes, and lactotropes
in the pituitary gland, a role for IGSF1 in pituitary GH production and/or secretion appears likely.
Pituitary adenomas can be derived from a single mutant cell of five differentiated cell types within pituitary gland: somatotropes, lactotropes
, corticotropes, thyrotropes, and gonadotropes, which, respectively, secrete growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)).
Ferraris et al., "Estrogens induce expression of membrane-associated estrogen receptor a isoforms in lactotropes
," PLoS ONE, vol.
Cota, "Induction of classical lactotropes
by epidermal growth factor in rat pituitary cell cultures," Endocrinology, vol.
However, not all kisspeptin positive cells within the pituitary were also LH[beta] positive; therefore, the observed reduction in KiSS-1 mRNA expression may also affect other pituitary cell types, including somatotropes, lactotropes
, and gonadotropes that specifically synthesize FSH.
TNF-[alpha]_ Induces Apoptosis of Lactotropes
from Female Rats.
Percentage of co-labeled cells differed (P<0.01), with corticotropes = gonadotropes = lactotropes
< thyrotropes = somatotropes.
Many degenerating and nondegenerated gonadotropes, somatotropes, and lactotropes
showed dilated ER (Figures 3 and 5) and hypertrophic Golgi areas, occasionally with some lightly dense granules inside.