A report sponsored by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA, USA) suggested mandatory LTBI
screening and treatment as part of routine preimmigration medical exams (9); however, this strategy was viewed as inequitable and unjustly coercive (10) and has never been employed.
In a study conducted in India that the results suggest that more than one-third of the HCWs had LTBI
. Patients included in this study; the age of the participants ranging from 18 to 71 years, with a mean age of 27.13 years.
There are three major treatment regimens of LTBI
according to the treatment guideline in Taiwan.
In the case of IBD, the need to identify patients with LTBI
has arisen with the arrival of immunosuppressive drugs and, in particular, anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies.
Second, this study was performed in an area where the prevalence of LTBI
It is reasonable to extend that to annual testing of employees to achieve the goal of early detection of LTBI
. Testing is available at local health departments at a minimal and, most times, complimentary fee.
Until about 10 years ago, the tuberculin skin test (TST) was the only test available to detect LTBI
. However, its accuracy among certain patient groups is questionable.
Persons with LTBI
can be diagnosed by skin (tuberculin skin test (TST)) and/or blood (interferon-gamma (IFN[gamma]) release assay (IGRA)) tests .
It was quite unusual to have a diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI
) versus TB disease in a fully vaccinated Irish resident without documented contact or travel.
In particular, the reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI
) is a clinical challenge due to its atypical clinical features (miliary or extrapulmonary presentations) .
Whether latent TB infection (LTBI
) affects perinatal outcome is not well studied.
In addition, IL-32 serves as a mediator of IFN[gamma]-vitamin D-related antimicrobial activity and a marker for latent TB infection (LTBI
), as determined via the mining of TB transcriptomic datasets .