used three similar nonclassical factors, Ascl1, Lmx1a
, and Nurr1 (ALN), to reprogram NG2 glia into various types of neurons in vivo and in vitro .
Moreover, other markers for specific parts of the brain, such as ventral midbrain neuron markers LMX1A
, FOXOl and FOXA2 (Hedlund et al., 2016; Stott et al., 2013), cerebral cortex marker FOX04, markers for myelination CNP and MBP (Li and Richardson, 2008; Agrawal et al., 1994), and a marker for L-glutamate transport SLC1A6 (Sery et al., 2015) were studied (Fig.
Once the transcription factors, NEUROD1, ASCL1 and LMX1A
, were injected into the brain of the mice, they were observed walking on a small treadmill.
Conversion of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in Wharton's jelly to dopamine neurons mediated by the Lmx1a
and neurturin in vitro: potential therapeutic application for Parkinson's disease in a rhesus monkey model.
Expression of Lmx1a
, Aadc, Vmat2, Th, and Tuj1 genes was clearly detected by our RT-PCR experiments (Figure 4(d)).
Altogether, they used five transcription factors, including two used by the Italians - Mash1 and Lmx1a
The two genes, Lmx1a and Msx1, are described as the "master determinant" that turns "raw" stem cells taken from embryos into dopamine neurons.
They found that Lmx1a and Msx1 are selectively active in the dopamine progenitor cells.
NPY+-derived cells could be found in all cortical layers; transcription factor FOXA2 is critical for midbrain DA neuron development while coexpressions of the floor plate (FP) marker FOXA2 and the roof plate marker LMX1A
are as well required.
The neurogenic potential of FP cells is established by expression of transcription factors, such as EN1, orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2), FOXA2 and LIM homeobox transcription factor 1 alpha (LMX1A
), which are involved in two regulatory feedback loops (SHH-FOXA2 and WNT1-LMX1A) .
Lu et al., "Dopaminergic neuron-like cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by lmx1a
and neurturin overexpression for autologous cytotherapy in hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys," Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol.