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abbreviation for lower level discriminator.

leg length discrepancy

; LLD true leg length inequality (i.e. >1 cm difference in adult), or apparently unequal length (secondary to e.g. spinal scoliosis or pelvic tilt, so that legs function as in LLD)
  • extrinsic compensation for LLD compensatory frontal-plane adjustment, e.g. pelvic tilt (higher anterior superior iliac spine on longer leg side), spinal scoliosis (convexity toward shorter leg), pectoral tilt (lower shoulder on side of longer leg + apparently longer arm on same side as longer leg)

  • intrinsic compensation for minor LLD longer leg shows e.g. excess foot pronation, internal knee/limb rotation, lack of knee extension; shorter leg shows supination (high arch), early heel lift and genu recurvatum

  • symptoms of LLD range of pathologies relating to gait unevenness and associated symptoms of strain, e.g. neck pain, sacroiliitis, osteitis pubis, psoasitis, quadriceps strain, pes anserinus bursitis, groin (adductor) strain, knee arthrosis, anterior knee pain, peroneal tendinitis, shin splints, Achilles tendinitis, sinus tarsi syndrome, metatarsalgia, intermetatarsal neuroma and sesamoiditis (Box 1)

  • treatment of marked LLD (i.e. >3 cm LLD, e.g. secondary to limb trauma, musculoskeletal or neurological disease) provision of orthoses and bespoke prosthetic shoe incorporating whole-foot shoe raise to accommodate equinus ankle deformity of short leg

    treatment of minor LLD (i.e. <1 cm LLD) heel rise to shorter leg

  • treatment of significant LLD (i.e. 1-2 cm LLD) full biomechanical assessment and provision of bespoke orthoses, plus full-length sole raise

Box 1: Effects of limb length discrepancy
  • Increased activity of the lumbar spinal musculature to control spinal scoliosis

  • Changes in the congruency in the lumbar vertebrae and alteration to the shape of the lumbar intervertebral discs

  • Asymmetrical pelvic rotation and spinal scoliosis

  • Unilateral hip arthritis (of the longer limb)

  • Shoulder tilt and with uneven arm swing, with apparent arm length discrepancy

  • Knee pathologies and vastus medialis strain on the longer limb

  • Excessive pronation of the subtalar and midtarsal joints of the longer limb

  • Functional ankle equinus of the shorter limb (early heel lift; reduced heel strike)

References in periodicals archive ?
For example, the approaches proposed in [6]--[9] transform the LLD program into the IL language code.
An extensive review of templating techniques is beyond the scope of this paper, but a short review as it relates to LLD will follow.
Valid and reliable measurement of LLD has been an area of considerable controversy.
In keeping with the lofty aims of the LLD, the faculty appointed as examiners two Judges and a leading barrister, all of them with strong connections to their respective universities.
LLD was a well-known complication of THA4513-18 Leg length inequality can contribute to low back pain sciatic nerve palsy ipsilateral knee pain and abnormal force transmission across the hip joint1419-23 and may contribute to hip instability aseptic prosthesis loosening and compromised cardiopulmonary function.
At early stage of elongation 3132, LLD along with by 4201 shows a high strength which is probably due to a large fraction of linear chains (either higher or medium molecular weight).
LLD is based on the lumen depreciation curve for the LED product being considered at a defined drive current and operating temperature.
We love our Fashionista of the Week Sienna's LLD look so much that we've tracked down some of the best on the market so you don't have to.
Whereas the cTnT values greater than the LLD were seen in patients with chronic Chagas disease only to a negligible extent with the conventional assay, a distinct number of cTnT values greater than the LLD were found with the highly sensitive assay.
Therefore, her LLD was considered to be quiescent and other causes for her anaemia were sought.
Allen Benson, LLD is the CEO of Native Counselling Services of Alberta.