and AMP-activated protein kinase control of mTOR signalling and growth.
Some oncogenes in lung cancers (alteration in TP53, K EGFR, RAS, CDKN2, FHIT, MYC, LKB1
and RB genes) are shown to affect tumor microenvironment to promote immune escape (14).
Bu sistemle olusturulan bir diger oldukca favori olan model ise Lkb1
:LSLK-RasG12D' dir ve insan metastazina oldukca benzer adenokarsinomlar ve skuamoz hucre karsinomlari gelisir (52).
Loss of Lkb1
and Pten leads to lung squamous cell carcinoma with elevated PD-L1 expression.
tumor suppressor negatively regulates mTOR signaling.
The CRTC1-NEDD9 signaling axis mediates lung cancer progression caused by LKB1
The cause of PJS is a mutant gene named STK1, also known as LKB1
. This gene is localized at 19p34-p36 and is a serine/threonine kinase that controls growth regulation.
Both these molecules affect similar biological process and it has also been discovered that Sirt1 phosphorylates LKB1
, the upstream kinase of AMPK and AMPK activated Sirt1 though Nampt (Cetrullo et al., 2015) AMPK is a serine threonine kinase which acts as a metabolic fuel gauge.
Studies have shown that NUCB2/Nesfatin-1 can promote colon cancer cell migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through LKB1
, AMPK/TORC1/ZEB pathways. A study by Yoo et al.
AMPK promotes its phosphorylation  at the Thr172 residue in its a subunit  by using an upstream kinase that was identified as a complex between tumor suppressor protein LKB1
and two accessory subunits STRAD and MO25 .
AMP competes with ATP for binding to the y regulatory subunit of AMPK [177, 178] and by doing so, greatly increases AMPK activity, but only in the presence of an upstream kinase such as liver kinase B1 (LKB1
Vasquez et al., "Medicine: the kinase LKB1
mediates glucose homeostasis in liver and therapeutic effects of metformin," Science, vol.