In the case of sturgeons, which have complex genomes, NGS allows the transcriptome analysis and gives information on possible differences between males and females in expression and presence of various genes (dmrt1, tra-1, wt1, lhx1, cyp19A1, fhl3, fem1a, gsdf, foxl2, ar, emx2, cyp17a1, etc.) that may be involved in the sexual development processes in different sturgeon species [7, 31-33].
On the other hand, dmrt3, igf-1, lhx1, and sox11 genes were found to be specific to the testicle transcriptome, while cyp19A1a, foxl2, gnrhr, and nanos3b were only found in the ovary transcriptome of Acipenser sinensis .
For example, several genes such as Bcl6b, Etv5, and Lhx1 were further verified and studied using various functional experiments [8, 9].
Till now, a few canonical markers, including Bcl6b, Csflr, Etv5, Gfral, Lhx1, Pou3f1, Ret, and Zbtb16 (Plzf), are well-studied and known to play important roles in regulating SSC self-renewal [1, 21, 22].
The investigators were able to differentiate both human ES cells and human iPS cells into cells expressing PAX2 and LHX1
, two key markers of the intermediate mesoderm.
Metanephri expressing the [Ahr.sup.d] allele showed variable degrees of induction in SfrpI Igflr, and Wnt4 throughout the exposure period and were completely spared deficits in differentiation, except for changes in Lhx1 which showed decreased levels at all rime points (Figure 3B).
Lhx1 is chiefly expressed in the ureteric bud and induced in mesenchymal aggregates and differentiating comma-and S-shaped bodies (Barnes et al.
Other genes identified in precursor lesions include PENK, CDKN2A/p16, STK11/LKB1, SPARC, SFRP1/SARP2 (chromosome arm 8p), TSLC1, RELN (chromosome arm 7q), TFPI2, CLDN5 (chromosome arm 22q), and UCHL1 in IPMNs (37,122,123); PENK, CDKN2A/p16, CLDN5, NPTX2, RPRM, SFRP1/SARP2, and LHX1
(chromosome arm 11p) in PanINs (117,118,124); and CDKN2A/p16 in MCNs.
The vertebrate ttx-3 homolog Lhx2 and the lin-11 homolog Lhx1 are indeed expressed in the diencephalon, which gives rise to the thermoregulatory hypothalamus (9, 10).
Apart from their suggested role in the hypothalamus, the vertebrate lin-11 and ttx-3 homologs Lhx1 and Lhx2 are expressed in several additional places in the nervous system (9, 10).
HPV takes part in the methylation of host genomes such as FAM19A4 and LHX1; the methylation of HPV itself can also work with the methylation of PAX1 and SOX1 in the host to enhance transcription, both of which induce bad outcomes of the host cervix.
HPV can result in novel DNA methylation events, including FAM19A4, LHX1, NKX2-8, PHACTR3, and PRDM14 genes in cervical carcinogenesis .