They also highlighted the trophic proteins, including surface receptors (e.g., PDG-FRB, EGFR, and PLAUR), signaling molecules (e.g., MAPK1, CDC42, RRAS/NRAS, and VAV2), and cell adhesion (e.g., EZR, FN1, IQGAP1, CD47, integrins, and LGALS1/ LGALS3
) and MSC-associated proteins (e.g., CD9, CD63, CD81, CD109, CD151, CD248, and CD276).
The genetic variants of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL4, IL13, IL10, IL18, TNF, and IFNGR1), the cytokine receptor (IL4R), the genes involved in the IgE/Fc[epsilon]RI pathway (the galectin-3 gene (LGALS3)), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) gene polymorphisms are also strongly associated with betalactam-induced immediate reactions (Table 2) [67-73].
The involvements of HLA-DRA, ILR4, NOD2, and LGALS3 have also been further validated by a replication study .
Using simple and composite interval mapping, we determined that Lgals3
controls its own expression.
The primer sequences were LGALS3 (forward: 5'-GCCTCGCATGCTGATAACAA-3', reverse: 5'CGTGGGTTAAAGTGGAAGGC-3') and GAPDH (forward: 5'-GGTATCGTGGAAGGACTCATGAC-3', reverse: 5'-ATGCCAGTGAGCTTCCCGTTCAGC-3').
Galectin-3, encoded by LGALS3, is a member of the galectin family and expressed in numerous cells, including epithelium cells of gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and renal tubules, fibroblasts, chondrocytes, osteocytes, and endothelial cells.
DE genes Samples Upregulated Downregulated C versus Pcdhgb2 Ubd, Ttr, M [intersection] F Cxcl9, Serpina3n, versus Irg1, Odf1, Trpv4 M [intersection] A versus M F versus Ifit1, AABR06089930.1, M [intersection] C LOC100912860 Cd80, versus M Tfec, Il1rn A versus Alas2, Plac8, C3, M [intersection] C Angptl1, Bcl2a1, S100a4, versus M Cndp1 Il15ra, Ptprcap, Lgals3
, Ccl2, LOC691141, Ptx3, Itgal, Pram1, Hk3, Pate4, A2m F versus Ada, Hsf5, Rn50_1_2682.1, M [intersection] A Slc16a12 Cd22 versus M Table 3: Common significant GO terms for DE genes.
demonstrated that the DNA methylation profile of an LGALS3
promoter was unmethylated in nonmucinous colorectal carcinomas, whereas LGALS3
was aberrantly methylated in mucinous colorectal carcinomas.
The human Gal-3 gene (LGALS3
) spans 17 Kb and contains 6 exons and 5 introns.
Stable Gal-3 knockdown was achieved by MSC or J774 macrophages by transduction with lentiviral vectors carrying a shRNA sequence targeting Lgals3
gene or scrambled control (Lgals3_shRNA1 5-GAT TTCAGGAGAGGGAATGAT-3; one Lgals3_scrbl_shRNA 5-AGGTATGAGTCGAGATTGAGA-3) as previously described .
Genes involved in cytosketetal structure and function (Vim, Tubb5, Tmsb10, Tmsb4x, Anxa2), in cell adhesion (Spp1, Col1a1, Clu, Lgals3
), and detoxification enzymes (Gstm2, Gstp2) are upregulated following cisplatin-induced injury.
MERTK is a proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase that binds to several ligands including LGALS3
, TUB, TULP1, or GAS6.