The majority of studies investigating nondental LDSCs have isolated cells from human ACLs (ACLDSCs) [14, 15].
The isolation of LDSCs involves tissue extraction, digestion in collagenase, and seeding of cells [14, 20] or, alternatively, tissue extraction and outgrowth of cells from ligament explants [21, 22].
Clonogenic Potential and Cell Morphology of LDSCs. After several days in culture, the LDSCs start to form heterogeneous colonies [20, 21], reflecting the heterogeneity of cell populations and differences in proliferation rates .
Stem Cell and Tenogenic Marker Expression of LDSCs. Many of the markers used to identify LDSCs are found in other cell types, including MSCs and tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) (Table 1).
LDSCs have also been shown to express ligamentogenic markers, indicative of their lineage.
Multipotency of LDSCs. As a subpopulation of MSCs, LDSCs should be multipotent and have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages.
LDSCs isolated from human ACL have been shown to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cells.
Osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation has also been demonstrated in other ligament types, including LDSCs isolated from equine suspensory , human interspinous , human medial collateral , and human posterior cruciate  ligaments, as well as LDSCs
Variation between LDSCs Isolated from Different Ligaments.