We show that if demand is perfectly inelastic, then an LCFS can achieve economic efficiency, however, if demand is not perfectly inelastic the average cost of the LCFS per unit of carbon reduced will exceed the average cost of carbon reductions under a Pigouvian carbon tax.
Before the Ninth Circuit, American Fuels and Rocky Mountain argued that the ethanol and crude oil provisions of the LCFS violated the Dormant Commerce Clause by discriminating against fuels produced out of state and regulating activity out of state.
The crystals typically stain in the same manner as those described for LCFS and have a similar ultrastructural appearance but are located in histiocytes, rather than proximal tubular cells (Figure 3, A and B).
106) As a result, the LCFS at this time is unlikely to have a significant deterrent effect on oil sands production, although this could change if the standard is adopted by Midwestern, Rocky Mountain, or Gulf Coast states.
CARB's proposal to revise indirect land-use change (ILUC) estimates in the LCFS shows the Brazilian sugarcane biofuel generates about half the indirect emissions that CARB originally suggested during its rulemaking process in 2009.
In its brief, UNICA asserts that California's low-carbon fuel standard is valid and consistent with the Constitution's Commerce Clause since: 1) the LCFS does not discriminate against fuels from outside the state to promote local economic interests; 2) the benefits to California's legitimate interest in responding to the threat of climate change outweigh the incidental burden on interstate commerce; and, 3) the LCFS does not regulate conduct outside the state.