glutamine

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glutamine

 [gloo´tah-min]
an amide of glutamic acid, one of the nonessential amino acids; it is an important carrier of urinary ammonia and is broken down in the kidney by the enzyme glutaminase.

glu·ta·mine (Gln, Q),

(glū'tă-mēn, -tă-min, glū-tam'in),
The δ-amide of glutamic acid, derived by oxidation from proline in the liver or by the combination of glutamic acid with ammonia; the l-isomer is present in proteins, blood, and other tissues, and is an important source of urinary ammonia, being broken down in the kidney by the action of the enzyme glutaminase; nonenzymatically, it is converted to 5-oxoproline.

glutamine

(glo͞o′tə-mēn′)
n.
A nonessential amino acid, C5H10N2O3, occurring widely in plant and animal tissue and proteins and produced commercially for use in medicine and biochemical research.

glu·ta·mine

(Gln) (glū'tă-mēn)
The δ-amide of glutamic acid, derived by oxidation from proline in the liver or by the combination of glutamic acid with ammonia; the l-isomer is present in proteins and in blood and other tissues, and is an important source of urinary ammonia.
Glutamineclick for a larger image
Fig. 173 Glutamine . Molecular structure.

glutamine (Q, Gln)

one of 20 AMINO ACIDS common in proteins that has a polar ‘R’ structure and is soluble in water.
References in periodicals archive ?
Improved performance and small intestinal development of broiler chickens by dietary L-glutamine supplementation.
L-glutamine powder that people take as a health supplement can also have some remarkable effects on blood sugar.
"Our trial showed that the median number of pain crises over 48 weeks was lower among the patients who received L-glutamine than among those who received placebo," the authors write.
As mentioned earlier, Patients with the disease suffer from a wide variety of complications such as ACS, dactilytis and recurrent infections which can seriously hamper daily life and dramatically reduce life expectancy.1,6 Given that SCD causes widespread mortality and morbidity research into therapies such as L-Glutamine, should be further encouraged.
The randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial on which the approval of L-glutamine was based (GLUSCC09-01) included patients aged 5-58 years with sickle cell disease or beta-0 thalassemia who had at least two episodes of painful crises during the 12 months before screening.
The 5% CSS-supplemented media contained DMEM with high glucose, 5% CsS, 2 mM L-Glutamine, 1mM Sodium Pyruvate, 40 [micro]g/mL Gentamicin, and 10 mM HEPES.
Sharples, "L-glutamine improves skeletal muscle cell differentiation and prevents myotube atrophy after cytokine (TNF-a) stress via reduced p38 MAPK signal transduction," Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol.
Research also suggests Sustamine is absorbed more than 200% better than standard L-glutamine. Sustamine provides essential support during times when the body undergoes large amounts of stress.
Jurkat and Raji cells were propagated in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, 2 mM L-glutamine, 1 mM pyruvate, 10 mM HEPES, MEM Non-Essential Amino Acids 10[micro]/ml, 50[micro]g/ml penicillin and 50 [micro]g/ml streptomycin (all reagents from Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA).
In brief, the transparent fraction of the mononuclear cells was separated and added to a threefold volume of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium-F12 (DMEM-F12, Biowest, France), supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (BioIdea, Iran), 1% penicillin/streptomycin (Biowest, France), and 1% L-glutamine (BioIdea, Iran).
Scientists at the University of Tennessee used L-glutamine as a model water-soluble bioactive compound and developed a delivery system that may find novel applications in supplementing bioactive compounds in functional foods.