Since the introduction of L-dopa
in the late 1960s, researchers have known that the body's enzymes (tools that perform necessary chemistry) can break down L-dopa
in the gut, preventing the drug from reaching the brain.
To test whether the primary anti-DOPA antibody specifically binds L-DOPA
, we used a strategy of pre-incubating pure L-DOPA
antigen with the primary antibody prior to introducing this mixture to the fixed tissue, as in the standard protocol described above.
is an effective treatment for bringing positive personality and cognition related changes in patients with idiopathic PD.
In Pakistan, PD patients are given L-dopa
as a mono-therapy or with combination of other pharmacological agents such as benserzide, anticholinergics etc.6 A recent study with Pakistani population showed high prevalence of cognitive deficits in patients with PD.7 Few studies have shown L-dopa
beneficial effects on motor function, alertness, cognitive and neuropsychological performance of patients with PD.8,9 There is a missing link in previous literature about L-dopa
response to cortical functioning, health related quality of life and fatigue severity in patients with I-PD.
6-OHDA lesioned rats which had severe dopaminergic denervation-treated with L-dopa
Then a 120 [micro]L of an L-dopa
solution (0.0625 to 0.25 mM) in a sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) was added to initiate the reaction.
Among the central dopaminergic side effects of L-dopa
, hallucinations and psychotic symptoms can cause important problems.
treatment, body weights were recorded weekly till the end of the experiment for all the groups.
The effect of fumarprotocetraric acid on L-DOPA
oxidation mediated by tyrosinase was evaluated spectrophotometrically (Bioespectro SP220) at 475 nm.
Wang 2002 basal bladder pressure in L-dopa
injected group (p < 0.05 versus normal saline injected group).
The substrate was L-dopa
by 120 [micro]L 0.1 mM in a sodium phosphate buffer at pH 6.8.
The samples were transferred to and incubated in fresh PBS with 1 mg/ml L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA
; Sigma) for 90 min at 30[degrees]C, and then washed in distilled water (Zhang & Li 2000).