AHFV, Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus; KFDV, Kyasanur Forest disease virus
The low genetic distance between the Egypt and Saudi Arabia sequences supports the hypothesis of a recent divergence from Kyasanur Forest disease virus
, i.e., the closest flavivirus (5), and a slow microevolution of ALKV, as for other tick-borne flaviviruses (13).
Reaction of Rattus rattus wroughtoni to Kyasanur forest disease virus. Indian J Med Res.
Isolates of Kyasanur Forest disease virus analyzed, India * ID Original Common no.
The closely related Kyasanur Forest disease virus
, which is endemic in certain regions of India, is the only tickborne hemorrhagic fever virus that has been isolated from Ornithodoros spp.
Kyasanur Forest disease virus
emerged in Karnataka, India, in 1957 after forests were cleared for urbanization and farmland reclamation.
The term "viral hemorrhagic fever" characterizes a severe multisystem syndrome associated with fever, shock, and bleeding diathesis caused by infection with any of several RNA viruses, including Ebola virus and Marburg virus (MARV) (family Filoviridae); Lassa virus (LASV) and the South American hemorrhagic fever viruses Guanarito virus, Junin virus, Machupo virus, and Sabifi virus (Arenaviridae); Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), and hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae); and Kyasanur Forest disease virus
(KFDV), Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, yellow fever virus (YFV), and dengue viruses (Flaviviridae) (1,2).
Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (genus Flavivirus, AHFV) was recently identified as the agent of a viral hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia and characterized serologically and genetically as a variant genotype of Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV).
AHFV was identified as a flavivirus on the basis of immunofluorescence assay performed with the flavivirus-specific monoclonal antibody 4G2 and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 220-bp genome fragment that exhibited 89% nucleotide (nt) sequence homology with the Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) NS5 gene.
We found no published reports describing a hemorrhagic disease caused by TBEV, although hemorrhagic manifestation is typical for tick-borne flaviviruses, including Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), Alkhurma virus, and Kyasanur Forest disease virus (9).
(g) Kyasanur forest disease virus (SWISS-PROT Q82951).