Kranz anatomy

Kranz anatomyclick for a larger image
Fig. 201 Kranz anatomy. Transverse section through leaf.

Kranz anatomy

the special structure of leaves in C4 PLANTS (e.g. maize) where the tissue equivalent to the spongy mesophyll cells is clustered in a ring around the leaf veins, outside the bundle-sheath cells. (The term ‘Kranz’ means wreath or ring in German). The bundle-sheath cells contain large CHLOROPLASTS whereas the spongy mesophyll cells have few if any chloroplasts, unlike their counterparts in C3 plants (see MESOPHYLL).
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Others discuss shelterin-mediated telomere protection, the genetic basis of C4 Kranz anatomy, brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, chromosome dynamics in response to DNA damage, ribosome hibernation, chemical modifications in the lifecycle of mRNA transcripts, calcium channelopathies and disorders of the muscle excitation-contraction complex, somatic mutagenesis in mammals and its implications for human disease and aging, crop quantitative genomics, phage-encoded anti-CRISPR (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat) defenses, unique archaeal small RNAs, behavioral epigenetics in eusocial insects, mitonuclear coregulation, X-chromosome inactivation, and immunoglobin-like receptors and their impact on wiring of brain synapses.
[C.sub.4] plants have succeeded in eliminating photorespiration by splitting the reactions of photosynthesis between two types of cells, mesophyll cells (MC) and bundle sheath cells (BSC) (Kranz anatomy).
These include the processes by which solar energy is converted into grain; the factors that determine the maximum yield limit of [C.sub.3] rice; the factors that might define the yield limits of rice with redesigned [C.sub.4] photosynthetic pathways; and problems associated with engineering a [C.sub.4] rice (e.g., difficulties in generating a rice plant with a Kranz anatomy).