KRAS

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KRAS

A Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family on chromosome 12p12.1, which encodes a small GTPase in which a single amino acid substitution results in a transforming protein.

Molecular pathology
The KRAS transforming protein has been linked to various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas, colorectal carcinoma, acute myelogenous leukaemia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia, gastric cancer, pilocytic astrocytoma, Noonan syndrome type 3, and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome
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References in periodicals archive ?
She explained that taxes are imposed by law and become effective by way of statute adding that KRA has no mandate to defer implementation of the same.
Another notable case has been by lawyer Tom Ojienda who has had a running battle with KRA over a S43.6 million tax bill.
"Kenya is renowned for its entrepreneurial spirit and its technological and financial innovations and we are proud to support the KRA as it demonstrates that e-government is an attainable reality.
Soon Bang Kra Jao was a matrix of vegetable patches and small fruit plantations, nurtured by canals that funnelled water to terraces piled with rich river soil.
The predictive power of the KRAS mutation status of tumours with regard to their responsiveness to cetuximab or panitumumab has been shown previously in studies with cetuximab/panitumumab alone or in combination with chemotherapy, administered to patients with mCRC that had progressed after previous treatment.
Among the patients with wild-type KRAS tumors compared, the researchers found a significant benefit in favor of the cetuximab-FOLFIRI combination, compared with treatment with FOLFIRI alone.
The "AMP KRAS vaccine" administration and resulting immune response yields robust activation against all common mutations in the KRAS protein compared to low or undetectable responses generated by soluble or benchmark treatments which fail to effectively reach the lymph nodes.
(25) The current expanded study population showed a similar mutation rate in each gene, AKT1 mutations in 5 specimens (0.4%), BRAF mutations in 78 specimens (6.5%), EGFR mutations in 226 specimens (19%), ERBB2 mutations in 17 specimens (1.3%), KRAS mutations in 428 specimens (35%), NRAS mutations in 12 specimens (1.0%), and PIK3CA mutations in 47 specimens (3.9%).
Additionally, the KRAS G12C mutations are present in 14% of NSCLC adenocarcinoma patients, 4% of colorectal cancer patients and subsets of other types of cancer.
KRAS [9] is one of the most common oncogenes mutated in pancreatic cancer (7), and such mutations have been observed in >90% ofPDAC cases (8, 9).
According to those studies, the percentage of mutated tumors ranges between 25% and 57%, and mutations mainly involve the KRAS gene in this subset of CRCs [6-8].