As described for other koinobiont
species that attack hosts at early stages , T.
Effect of female size on host selection by a koinobiont
insect parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).
However, given their koinobiont
strategy, the wasps may be unable both to accelerate their growth and development sufficiently to exploit the earliest part of the moths' period of vulnerability more heavily and simultaneously obtain maximum resources from them (see Strand and Casas, 2008).
The Polysphinctini are koinobiont
ectoparasitoid ichneumonid wasps that attack spiders in several families (Nielsen 1923, 1932a, b, Fincke et al.
When parasitoids were found on larvae, they were further categorized as idiobiont (suspending leafminer development) ectoparasitoid, idiobiont endoparasitoid, or koinobiont
endoparasitoid (allowing continued development of the leafminer host before eventual host death).
Aphelinidae is one of the many groups of wasps that are koinobiont
endoparasitoids, in which the host nearly always dies during parasitoid development.
The Microgastrinae were the most abundant in the two environments, however, presenting the largest number of genera in the agrosilvopastoral system; this subfamily is cosmopolitan, highly diversified, comprising koinobiont
endoparasitoids, solitary or gregarious on larvae of Lepidoptera (Mason, 1981; Whitfield et al., 2009).
Furthermore, individuals removed from the population at an early stage by predators or idiobiont parasitoids (that kill or permanently paralyze the host during oviposition) are unavailable to natural enemies at later stages, whereas diseased immatures and those parasitized by koinobiont
parasitoids (that permit continued host development following oviposition) may remain in the population for some time and be eaten by predators or killed by some non-enemy factor.
parasitoid species parasitize young or early-stage hosts in which they can proceed through their development, and they usually do not kill the host until the parasitoid reaches its final developmental stage (Kant et al.
Metopiinae are solitary larval/pupal koinobiont
endoparasitoids of Lepidoptera, and hosts are either caterpillars that feed exposed on plants or those that feed in weak concealment (Gauld et al., 2002).
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), which originated in the Indo-Australian region, is a koinobiont
endoparasitoid of various tephritid species.
Most of the known species of Meteorus are koinobiont
endoparasitoids and generally attack young caterpillars, and some are specialised in parasitising beetle larvae (Shaw and Huddleston, 1991; Shaw, 1995, 1997; Zitani and Shaw, 2002).