knowledge

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knowledge

 [nŏ´lej]
the ability of a client to remember and interpret information.
knowledge deficit (specify) a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as the absence or deficiency of cognitive information related to a specific topic. For purposes of assessing knowledge deficit, setting objectives, and planning and implementing patient teaching, three broad areas or domains are recognized: the cognitive, the affective, and the psychomotor domains. These were devised by Benjamin S. Bloom and colleagues as a part of a taxonomy of educational objectives, whose purpose is to classify and better identify specific goals for teaching, learning, and evaluation of outcomes of the process.

The cognitive domain deals with the recall or recognition of knowledge and the development of intellectual abilities and skills. The affective domain encompasses interest, attitudes, and values. The psychomotor domain is the manipulative or motor-skill area of learning.

Learning objectives in each of these domains should be stated in behavioral terms. Educators contend that a change in behavior is evidence that learning has taken place. Hence, criteria by which one judges whether learning has occurred are written in terms of what the learner is able to do as a result of instruction. In the cognitive domain a goal of learning might be that the patient verbalizes dosage of prescribed medication, its expected actions, and any untoward reactions to be reported. In the affective domain, a change in attitude or value is observed as a change in behavior. Thus the fact that a patient loses the desired amount of weight in a specific period of time while following a special diet is evidence that the diet is valued and therefore has been followed. In the psychomotor domain a goal could be that the patient is able to take and record his or her own blood pressure accurately each day.

The overall purposes of assessing and implementing plans for correction of a knowledge deficit are to assist the patient and family members (1) to promote their own health and that of family members, (2) to maintain current health status and improve it as much as possible according to each person's capabilities, and (3) to improve to the fullest one's self-care abilities.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
To the doctrine that virtue is knowledge, Plato has been constantly tending in the previous Dialogues.
Even if there be no true knowledge, as is proved by 'the wretched state of education,' there may be right opinion, which is a sort of guessing or divination resting on no knowledge of causes, and incommunicable to others.
To him knowledge, if only attainable in this world, is of all things the most divine.
The philosopher only has knowledge, and yet the statesman and the poet are inspired.
And Socrates himself appears to be conscious of their weakness; for he adds immediately afterwards, 'I have said some things of which I am not altogether confident.' (Compare Phaedo.) It may be observed, however, that the fanciful notion of pre-existence is combined with a true but partial view of the origin and unity of knowledge, and of the association of ideas.
Now this conversation in our historian must be universal, that is, with all ranks and degrees of men; for the knowledge of what is called high life will not instruct him in low; nor, e converso , will his being acquainted with the inferior part of mankind teach him the manners of the superior.
Like Brentano, I am interested in psychology, not so much for its own sake, as for the light that it may throw on the problem of knowledge. Until very lately I believed, as he did, that mental phenomena have essential reference to objects, except possibly in the case of pleasure and pain.
It is held that knowledge of the outer world is constituted by the relation to the object, while the fact that knowledge is different from what it knows is due to the fact that knowledge comes by way of contents.
Modern idealism professes to be by no means confined to the present thought or the present thinker in regard to its knowledge; indeed, it contends that the world is so organic, so dove-tailed, that from any one portion the whole can be inferred, as the complete skeleton of an extinct animal can be inferred from one bone.
The relation itself is a part of pure experience; one of its 'terms' becomes the subject or bearer of the knowledge, the knower, the other becomes the object known"(p.
They deny altogether that there is a separate source of knowledge called "introspection," by which we can know things about ourselves which we could never observe in others.
In either case, the EXECUTION of the business, which alone requires the knowledge of local details, must be devolved upon discreet persons in the character of commissioners or assessors, elected by the people or appointed by the government for the purpose.